Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Papers and articles related to SMT, PCB & EMS industry.


  • Europlacer SMT Pick & Place Machines
  • Reflow Ovens
  • Precision, fluid dispensing systems for low volume, high mix, R&D, and high volume 24x7 production
  • PCB X-Ray Inspection
  • PCB Rework Tools
738 SMT / PCB Technical Articles

ULTRAVIOLET (UV) CURING TECHNOLOGY

Aug 18, 2015 | Wes Noble

What is UV Curing? “Ultraviolet (UV) light is an electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 400 nm to 100 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.” (Source: Wikipedia). Ultraviolet or UV curing is used to create a photochemical reaction using high intensity Ultraviolet (UV) energy or “light” to quickly dry inks, adhesives or conformal coatings. Most materials cure with a UV wavelength around 350 ~ 400nm although some materials require UVC energy near 255nm. There are many advantages to using UV curing over other traditional methods of curing. Not only will it increase production speed, it assists in creating a better bond, and improves scratch and solvent resistance. When compared to other methods of curing, UV curing generates a more reliable cured product at a much higher rate of production in a considerably shorter period of time....

Publisher: ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

Manufacturer of Fluid Dispensing Equipment for Selective Conformal Coating, Potting, Encasulation & Underfill including Inspection, Conveying and Curing. Total Solution Fluid Dispensing & Conformal Cocating Process Lines.

Deer Park, Washington, USA

Adhesives/Dispensing, Inspection, Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Soldering, Turnkey

Improve Crimp Quality to Increase Productivity

Aug 17, 2015 | Pete Doyon, VP, Product Management, Schleuniger, Inc.

Since a high percentage of product failures can be traced to poor electrical connections, crimp quality is of paramount importance. There are many factors that come into play that affect crimp quality and knowing the relevant factors, and to what extent each factor affects the end result, will help to guide the process engineer towards achieving the best possible results. ...

Publisher: Schleuniger, Inc.

Schleuniger, Inc.

Schleuniger, Inc. is a leading manufacturer of wire processing equipment. Our innovative automatic and semi-automatic machines are designed to cut, strip, crimp and mark all types of wire and cable.

Manchester, New Hampshire, USA

Other

Pad Cratering Susceptibility Testing with Acoustic Emission

Aug 13, 2015 | Wong Boon San, Julie Silk; Agilent Technologies | Richard Nordstrom, Ph.D.; Acoustic Technology Group,

Pad cratering has become more prevalent with the switch to lead free solders and lead free compatible laminates. This mainly is due to the use of higher reflow temperature, stiffer Pb-free solder alloys, and the more brittle Pb-free compatible laminates. However, pad cratering is difficult to detect by monitoring electric resistance since pad cratering initiates before an electrical failure occurs.

Several methods have been developed to evaluate laminate materials' resistance to pad cratering. Pad-solder level tests include ball shear, ball pull and pin pull. The detailed methods for ball shear, ball pull, and pin pull testing are documented in an industry standard IPC-9708. Bansal, et al. proposed to use acoustic emission (AE) sensors to detect pad cratering during four-point bend test. Currently there is an industry-working group working on test guidelines for acoustic emission measurement during mechanical testing....

Publisher: Agilent Technologies, Inc.

Agilent Technologies, Inc.

World's premier measurement company, providing the critical tools and technologies that sense, measure, and interpret the physical and biological world.

Loveland, Colorado, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment

Enclosed Media Printing as an Alternative to Metal Blades

Aug 06, 2015 | Michael L. Martel

Fine pitch/fine feature solder paste printing in PCB assembly has become increasingly difficult as board geometries have become ever more compact. The printing process itself, traditionally the source of 70% of all assembly defects, finds its process window narrowing. The technology of metal blade squeegees, with the aid of new materials, understanding, and settings such as blade angle, has kept pace with all but the smallest applications, e.g., 200μ - .50 AR and 150μ - .375 AR, which have been pushing blade printing technology to its limits.

Enclosed media print head technology has existed, and has been under increasing development, as an alternative to metal squeegee blade printing. Until recently, the performance of enclosed print heads had been comparable to the very best metal squeegees, but advances in enclosed print media technology have now made it a superior alternative to squeegee blades in virtually all applications....

Publisher: Speedline Technologies, Inc.

Speedline Technologies, Inc.

Speedline Technologies serves the electronics assembly and semiconductor packaging industries with class-leading equipment, responsive support and unparalleled process knowledge.

Franklin, Massachusetts, USA

Adhesives/Dispensing, Cleaning, Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Screen Printing, Soldering

5 Axis Fluid Dispensing

Jul 31, 2015 | Brian Stumm

Technology is in constant change and circuit assembly is no different. It is becoming more and more advanced as needs change and demands for more capabilities increase. In order to meet these demands, equipment manufacturers are integrating the latest innovations and tools to serve the industry. The need to better protect printed circuit assemblies from harsh environments using automated selective conformal coating is becoming a must. 5 axis fluid dispensing allows conformal coating to be applied to printed circuit assemblies like never before....

Publisher: ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

Manufacturer of Fluid Dispensing Equipment for Selective Conformal Coating, Potting, Encasulation & Underfill including Inspection, Conveying and Curing. Total Solution Fluid Dispensing & Conformal Cocating Process Lines.

Deer Park, Washington, USA

Adhesives/Dispensing, Inspection, Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Soldering, Turnkey

Thermal Curing of Conformal Coatings

Jul 27, 2015 | Wes Noble

When it comes to the application of conformal coating, curing the coating plays a key role in the circuit assembly and selective conformal coating process. Curing conformal coating occurs after the coating spray/dispense process is complete. The coating is considered “cured” when the conformal coating on the circuit assembly is sufficiently tack-free to be handled. Curing can sometimes be accomplished at room temperature but takes a considerable amount of time to dry. Accelerated conformal coating curing decreases this drying period, the cure process reaches either the tack-free or a fully dried state but not quite having fully cured properties. Accelerated curing techniques include one or a combination of heat, moisture, UV light, and chemical reaction curing. This article focuses primarily on thermal or heat curing....

Publisher: ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

Manufacturer of Fluid Dispensing Equipment for Selective Conformal Coating, Potting, Encasulation & Underfill including Inspection, Conveying and Curing. Total Solution Fluid Dispensing & Conformal Cocating Process Lines.

Deer Park, Washington, USA

Adhesives/Dispensing, Inspection, Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Soldering, Turnkey

Measuring Conformal Coating Thickness

Jul 21, 2015 | Roger Plough

Achieving an even coat at the right desired thickness is a major challenge when it comes to applying conformal coating to a Printed Circuit Board (PCB). Applying a coating too thin will ultimately render the electronic assembly vulnerable to potential environmental risks therefore defeating the purpose of the coating. Apply the coat too thick, and it could leave the electronic specific components non-functional therefore destroying the electronic assembly entirely. Coating thickness must meet quality specifications. Measurements for coating thickness may be taken while film is dry or wet. Once measurements are recorded, thickness is compared to quality specifications and fluid dispensing automation machinery is calibrated as necessary. There are a handful of methods for measuring conformal coating thickness that are commonly used in the Electronic Manufacturing Services (EMS) and Original Electronic Manufacturer (OEM) industries. A few commonly used methods for checking conformal coating thickness include:...

Publisher: ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

Manufacturer of Fluid Dispensing Equipment for Selective Conformal Coating, Potting, Encasulation & Underfill including Inspection, Conveying and Curing. Total Solution Fluid Dispensing & Conformal Cocating Process Lines.

Deer Park, Washington, USA

Adhesives/Dispensing, Inspection, Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Soldering, Turnkey

Testing Printed Circuit Boards for Creep Corrosion in Flowers of Sulfur Chamber

Jul 16, 2015 | Haley Fu; iNEMI, Prabjit Singh, Levi Campbell, Jing Zhang; IBM Corporation, Wallace Ables; Dell Corporation, Dem Lee, Jeffrey Lee; iST-Integrated Service Technology, Jane Li, Solomon Zhang; Lenovo Limited Corporation, Simon Lee; The Dow Chemical Company.

Qualification of electronic hardware from a corrosion resistance standpoint has traditionally relied on stressing the hardware in a variety of environments. Before the development of tests based on mixed flowing gas (MFG), hardware was typically exposed to temperature-humidity cycling. In the pre-1980s era, component feature sizes were relatively large. Corrosion, while it did occur, did not in general degrade reliability. There were rare instances of the data center environments releasing corrosive gases and corroding hardware. One that got a lot of publicity was the corrosion by sulfur-bearing gases given off by data center carpeting. More often, corrosion was due to corrosive flux residues left on as-manufactured printed circuit boards (PCBs) that led to ion migration induced electrical shorting. Ion migration induced failures also occurred inside the PCBs due to poor laminate quality and moisture trapped in the laminate layers....

Publisher: iNEMI (International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative)

iNEMI (International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative)

iNEMI is an industry-led consortium focused on identifying and closing technology gaps, which includes the development and integration of the electronics industry supply infrastructure.

Herndon, Virginia, USA

What is Kelvin Test?

Jul 14, 2015 | Rick Meraw, Todd Kolmodin, Manfred Ludwig, Holger Kern.

The PCB industry is ever changing and adapting to new technologies. OEM specifications and requirements have also advanced due to these technologies. In some cases the OEMs are asking for a low resistance test to be performed on some or all electrical test nets of the PCB or on the holes of the PCB. This requirement is typically not well defined on the fabrication drawing and that leads to misleading conclusions by the fabrication house (...)

This paper will use the data gathered by the company’s operations to outline what a 4-wire Kelvin test is and how it can be used. Several examples will be illustrated of what the 4 wire Kelvin test can and cannot do. A clear definition of what limitations are present during the testing operation will be defined. The paper will assist designers in understanding how the low resistance test can assist them and also identify causes that can identify unwanted concerns/issues....

Publisher: Gardien Services USA

Gardien Services USA

The Gardien Group is the world's largest provider of independent testing services to the PCB manufacturing industry.

Hillsboro, Oregon, USA

Test Services

Reliability Study of Bottom Terminated Components

Jul 14, 2015 | Jennifer Nguyen, Hector Marin, David Geiger, Anwar Mohammed, and Murad Kurwa

Bottom terminated components (BTC) are leadless components where terminations are protectively plated on the underside of the package. They are all slightly different and have different names, such as QFN (quad flat no lead), DFN (dual flat no lead), LGA (land grid array) and MLF (micro lead-frame. BTC assembly has increased rapidly in recent years. This type of package is attractive due to its low cost and good performance like improved signal speeds and enhanced thermal performance.

However, bottom terminated components do not have any leads to absorb the stress and strain on the solder joints. It relies on the correct amount of solder deposited during the assembly process for having a good solder joint quality and reliable reliability. Voiding is typically seen on the BTC solder joint, especially on the thermal pad of the component. Voiding creates a major concern on BTC component’s solder joint reliability. There is no current industry standard on the voiding criteria for bottom terminated component. The impact of voiding on solder joint reliability and the impact of voiding on the heat transfer characteristics at BTC component are not well understood. This paper will present some data to address these concerns....

Publisher: Flex (Flextronics International)

Flex (Flextronics International)

Flextronics is a global full-service supplier of a full spectrum of value-added Electronic Manufacturing Services.

Singapore, Singapore

Design, Service Provider

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