Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Papers and articles related to SMT, PCB & EMS industry.


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723 SMT / PCB Technical Articles

Make the Right Design Choices in Load Switching and Simulation in a High Current and Mechatronic Functional Test

Feb 04, 2016 | Derek Ong, Lok Teng Kee, Chuah Rhun Chia

In a typical mechatronic manufacturing functional test setup, actual load simulations are usually done by connecting the DUT outputs to power or ground in order to establish either a high or low side driver. Each output is connected with different load and the test will either be sequential or concurrent. At lower power levels, these can usually be managed with general purpose switches. However, when it comes to higher power levels of currents more than 5 amps, such switching and loading might pose a greater challenge. Furthermore, critically in the manufacturing line, the tradeoff between cost and test time would have a great influence on the test strategy.

This paper will present some key points to design a cost effective high power switching and load management solution....

Publisher: Keysight Technologies

Keysight Technologies

A global electronic measurement technology and market leader helping to transform its customers' measurement experience through innovations in wireless, modular, and software solutions.

Santa Rosa, California, USA

Inspection, Test Services

Dispelling the Black Magic of Solder Paste

Jan 21, 2016 | Tony Lentz

Solder paste has long been viewed as "black magic". This "black magic" can easily be dispelled through a solder paste evaluation. Unfortunately, solder paste evaluation can be a challenge for electronic assemblers. Interrupting the production schedule to perform an evaluation is usually the first hurdle. Choosing the solder paste properties to test is simple, but testing for these properties can be difficult. Special equipment or materials may be required depending upon the tests that are chosen. Once the testing is complete, how does one make the decision to choose a solder paste? Is the decision based on gut feel or hard data?

This paper presents a process for evaluating solder pastes using a variety of methods. These methods are quick to run and are challenging, revealing the strengths and weaknesses of solder pastes. Methods detailed in this paper include: print volume, stencil life, response to pause, open time, tack force over time, wetting, solder balling, graping, voiding, accelerated aging, and others....

Publisher: FCT ASSEMBLY, INC.

FCT ASSEMBLY, INC.

With numerous facilities in the United States, we are one of the electronics industry's leading manufacturers of lead-free solder products, superior quality stencils, and precision cut parts.

Greeley, Colorado, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

A Low Cost Manufacturing Solution - Low Temperature Super-Fast Cure and Flow Reworkable Underfill

Jan 12, 2016 | Dr. Mary Liu and Dr. Wusheng Yin

In order to meet the increasing demand of device miniaturization, high speed, more memory, more function, low cost, and more flexibility in device design and manufacturing chain, underfilling has increasingly become an essential process for the good reliability of electronic devices. Filled capillary underfill has been selected for used in package-level where there is large thermal stress caused by CTE mismatch issue, but the underfill is usually not reworkable. Unfilled capillary underfill has been used for board-level application such as BGA/CSP, POP, WL-CSP where there is need for mechanical shock resistance, the underfill is usually reworkable....

Publisher: YINCAE Advanced Materials, LLC.

YINCAE Advanced Materials, LLC.

Yincae Advanced Materials, LLC is a developer, manufacturer, and supplier of high performance coatings, adhesives, electronic and optoelectronic materials.

Albany, New York, USA

Components/Substrates, Contract Manufacturer, Manufacturer of Assembly Material

A Room Temperature Stable and Jetable Solder Joint Encapsulant Adhesive - Capillary Underfill Replacement

Jan 12, 2016 | Dr. Mary Liu and Dr. Wusheng Yin

With the increasing demand of device miniaturization, high speed, more memory, more function, low cost, and more flexibility in device design and manufacturing chain, YINCAE has published a white paper on a first individual solder joint encapsulant which can eliminate underfilling process with at least five times solder joint increase and provide more flexibility for fine pitch and high density application. In order to meet the demand of manufacturing of high speed and low cost, YINCAE has invented a room temperature stable and jettable solder joint encapsulant adhesive – SMT 266. The invention of SMT 266 has allowed our customers to have more flexibility in their high-speed production line such as worry free on the work life of adhesive and workable jetting process....

Publisher: YINCAE Advanced Materials, LLC.

YINCAE Advanced Materials, LLC.

Yincae Advanced Materials, LLC is a developer, manufacturer, and supplier of high performance coatings, adhesives, electronic and optoelectronic materials.

Albany, New York, USA

Components/Substrates, Contract Manufacturer, Manufacturer of Assembly Material

A Low Temperature Solder Joint Encapsulant for Sn/Bi Applications

Jan 12, 2016 | Dr. Mary Liu and Dr. Wusheng Yin

The electronic industry is currently very interested in low temperature soldering processes such as using Sn/Bi alloy to improve process yield, eliminate the head-in-pillow effect, and enhance rework yield. However, Sn/Bi alloy is not strong enough to replace lead-free (SAC) and eutectic Sn/Pb alloys in most applications. In order to improve the strength of Sn/Bi solder joints, enhance mechanical performance, and improve reliability properties such as thermal cycling performance of soldered electronic devices, YINCAE has developed a low temperature solder joint encapsulant for Sn/Bi soldering applications. This low temperature solder joint encapsulant can be dipped, dispensed, or printed. After reflow with Sn/Bi solder paste or alloy, solder joint encapsulant encapsulates the solder joint. As a result, the strength of solder joints is enhanced by several times, and thermal cycling performance is significantly improved. All details will be discussed in this paper....

Publisher: YINCAE Advanced Materials, LLC.

YINCAE Advanced Materials, LLC.

Yincae Advanced Materials, LLC is a developer, manufacturer, and supplier of high performance coatings, adhesives, electronic and optoelectronic materials.

Albany, New York, USA

Components/Substrates, Contract Manufacturer, Manufacturer of Assembly Material

Solderable Anisotropic Conductive Adhesives for 3D Package Applications

Jan 12, 2016 | Dr. Mary Liu and Dr. Wusheng Yin

3D packaging has recently become very attractive because it can provide more flexibility in device design and supply chain, reduce the gap between silicon die and organic substrate, help miniaturize devices and meet the demand of high speed, provide more memory, more function and low cost. With the advancement of 3D packaging, the bump height is now down from 80μ to 10μ. When the bump diameter is 20-40μ and height 10μ, the process and reliability are obvious issues. It is well known that underfill can enhance the reliability for regular flip chip, however underfill won’t help assembly process. In order to resolve some difficulties that 3D packaging faces, YINCAE Advanced Materials, LLC has developed solderable anisotropic conductive adhesives for 3D package applications. In this paper we will discuss the assembly process and reliability in detail....

Publisher: YINCAE Advanced Materials, LLC.

YINCAE Advanced Materials, LLC.

Yincae Advanced Materials, LLC is a developer, manufacturer, and supplier of high performance coatings, adhesives, electronic and optoelectronic materials.

Albany, New York, USA

Components/Substrates, Contract Manufacturer, Manufacturer of Assembly Material

An Innovative Reliability Solution to Interconnect of Flexible/Rigid Substrates

Jan 12, 2016 | Dr. Mary Liu and Dr. Wusheng Yin

With the pitch size of interconnect getting finer and finer, the bonding strength between flexible and rigid (e.g. PCB, ceramic) substrates becomes a serious issue because it is not strong enough to meet the customer’s requirement. Capillary underfill has been used to enhance the bonding strength between flexible and rigid substrates, but the enhancement is very limited, particularly for high temperature application. The bonding strength of underfilled flexible/rigid interconnect is dramatically decreased after being used at 180◦C, and the interconnects are weakened by the internal stress caused by the expansion of underfill at high temperatures. In order to resolve reliability issues of the interconnect between flexible/rigid substrates, solder joint encapsulant was implemented into the thermal compression bonding process, which was used to manufacture the interconnect between flexible/rigid substrates. Compared to the traditional process, the strength of the interconnect was doubled and the reliability was significantly improved in high temperature application....

Publisher: YINCAE Advanced Materials, LLC.

YINCAE Advanced Materials, LLC.

Yincae Advanced Materials, LLC is a developer, manufacturer, and supplier of high performance coatings, adhesives, electronic and optoelectronic materials.

Albany, New York, USA

Components/Substrates, Contract Manufacturer, Manufacturer of Assembly Material

Solder Joint Encapsulant Adhesive - LGA High Reliability And Low Cost Assembly Solution

Jan 12, 2016 | Dr. Mary Liu and Dr. Wusheng Yin

More and more Land Grid Array (LGA) components are being used in electronic devices such as smartphones, tablets and computers. In order to enhance LGA mechanical strength and reliability, capillary flow underfill is used to improve reliability. However, due to the small gap, it is difficult for capillary underfill to flow into the LGA at SMT level. Due to cost considerations, there are usually no pre-heating underfill or cleaning flux residue processes at the SMT assembly line. YINCAE solder joint encapsulant SMT256 has been successfully used with solder paste for LGA assembly. Solder joint encapsulant is used in in-line LGA soldering process with enhanced reliability. It eliminates the underfilling process and provides excellent reworkability. The shear st rength of solder joint is stronger than that of underfilled components. The thermal cycling performance using solder joint encapsulant is much better than that using underfill. Bottom IC of POP has been studied for further understanding of LGA assembly process parameters. All details such as assembly process, drop test and thermal cycling test will be discussed in this paper....

Publisher: YINCAE Advanced Materials, LLC.

YINCAE Advanced Materials, LLC.

Yincae Advanced Materials, LLC is a developer, manufacturer, and supplier of high performance coatings, adhesives, electronic and optoelectronic materials.

Albany, New York, USA

Components/Substrates, Contract Manufacturer, Manufacturer of Assembly Material

The Future of Solder Joint Encapsulant

Jan 08, 2016 | Dr. Mary Liu and Dr. Wusheng Yin

Solder joint encapsulant adhesives have been successfully used to enhance the strength of solder joints and improve thermal cycling as well as drop performance in finished products. The use of solder joint encapsulant adhesives can eliminate the need for underfill materials and the underfill process altogether, thus simplifying rework, which results in a lower cost of ownership.

Solder joint encapsulant adhesives include: low temperature and high temperature solder joint encapsulant adhesives, and their derivatives. Each solder joint encapsulant adhesive has: unfilled and filled solder joint encapsulant adhesives, and solder joint encapsulant paste. Each solder joint encapsulant product has been designed for different applications. In this paper, we are going to discuss the details and future of solder joint encapsulant adhesives. ...

Publisher: YINCAE Advanced Materials, LLC.

YINCAE Advanced Materials, LLC.

Yincae Advanced Materials, LLC is a developer, manufacturer, and supplier of high performance coatings, adhesives, electronic and optoelectronic materials.

Albany, New York, USA

Components/Substrates, Contract Manufacturer, Manufacturer of Assembly Material

Effect on Microwave Plasma Surface Treatment for Improved Adhesion Strenght of Direct Copper Plating on Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)

Jan 07, 2016 | Akira Takeuchi, Takahiro Kurahashi, Kyosuke Takeda

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of plasma surface modification to improve adhesion strength between polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and electroless copper plating. PTFE is widely used in many industries because of its unique electrical, thermal, and mechanical characteristics. However, because of its low surface energy, it is difficult to acquire enough adhesion strength between PTFE and other substances without surface modification. Plasma is well known as one of the surface modification techniques that improve adhesion strength....

Publisher: Nissin Corporation

Nissin Corporation

Nissin supplies electron element materials, anisotropic conductive films, direct-current power supply systems, uninterruptible power supplies.

Nishinomiya, Japan

Other

Study on Solder Joint Reliability of Fine Pitch CSP

Dec 31, 2015 | Yong Hill Liang, Hank Mao, YongGang Yan, Jindong (King) Lee; AEG, Flextronics International.

Today's consumer electronic product are characterized by miniatuization, portability and light weight with high performance, especially for 3G mobile products. In the future more fine pitch CSPs (0.4mm) component will be required. However, the product reliability has been a big challenge with the fine pitch CSP. Firstly, the fine pitch CSPs are with smaller solder balls of 0.25mm diameter or even smaller. The small solder ball and pad size do weaken the solder connection and the adhesion of the pad and substrate, thus the pad will peel off easily from the PCB substrate. In addition, miniature solder joint reduce the strength during mechanical vibration, thermal shock, fatigue failure, etc. Secondly, applying sufficient solder paste evenly on the small pad of the CSP is difficult because stencil opening is only 0.25mm or less. This issue can be solved using the high end type of stencil such as Electroforming which will increase the cost....

Publisher: Flex (Flextronics International)

Flex (Flextronics International)

Flextronics is a global full-service supplier of a full spectrum of value-added Electronic Manufacturing Services.

Singapore, Singapore

Design, Service Provider

PCB Fabrication Processes and Their Effects on Fine Copper Barrel Cracks

Dec 23, 2015 | Edward Arthur, Charles Busa, Melissa Durfee, Chad Gibson, Wade Goldman P.E.; Raytheon Company, Space and Airborne Systems, The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc., Raytheon Company, Integrated Defense Systems.

The onset of copper barrel cracks is typically induced by the presence of manufacturing defects. In the absence of discernible manufacturing defects, the causes of copper barrel cracks in printed circuit board (PCB) plated through holes is not well understood. Accordingly, there is a need to determine what affects the onset of barrel cracks and then control those causes to mitigate their initiation.

The objective of this research is to conduct a design of experiment (DOE) to determine if there is a relationship between PCB fabrication processes and the prevalence of fine barrel cracks. The test vehicle used will be a 16-layer epoxy-based PCB that has two different sized plated through holes as well as buried vias....

Publisher: Raytheon

Raytheon

The Raytheon Company is a major American defense contractor and industrial corporation with core manufacturing concentrations in weapons and military and commercial electronics.

Waltham, Massachusetts, USA

Other

Good Product Quality Comes From Good Design for Test Strategies

Dec 17, 2015 | Adrian Cheong

Product quality can be improved through proper application of design for test (DFT) strategies. With today's shrinking product sizes and increasing functionality, it is difficult to get good test coverage of loaded printed circuit boards due to the loss of test access. Advances in test techniques, such as boundary scan, help to recover this loss of test coverage. However, many of these test techniques need to be designed into the product to be effective.

This paper will discuss how to maximize the benefits of boundary scan test, including specific examples of how designers should select the right component, connect multiple boundary scan components in chains, add test access to the boundary scan TAP ports, etc. A discussion of DFT guidelines for PCB layout designers is also included. Finally, this paper will include a description of some advanced test methods used in in-circuit tests, such as vectorless test and special probing methods, which are implemented to improve test coverage on printed circuit boards with limited test access....

Publisher: Agilent Technologies, Inc.

Agilent Technologies, Inc.

World's premier measurement company, providing the critical tools and technologies that sense, measure, and interpret the physical and biological world.

Loveland, Colorado, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment

Looking Forward - Manufacturing Execution Systems for SME’s

Dec 14, 2015 | Pete Doyon, VP Product Management, Schleuniger, Inc.

A Manufacturing Execution System (MES) is a software program that manages and monitors production work in a factory. The MES controls and monitors all manufacturing data in real time, so there is no guesswork as to the status of any given job, machine, operator, etc. The focus is on short-interval scheduling (shift or day) with an emphasis on optimizing the distribution of work orders. Larger manufacturers have employed MES’s for years but many small to medium sized enterprises (SME’s) have yet to adopt such systems. The benefits of using an MES are many. Looking forward, I predict that even the smallest manufacturing companies will employ MES systems in the future....

Publisher: Schleuniger, Inc.

Schleuniger, Inc.

Schleuniger, Inc. is a leading manufacturer of wire processing equipment. Our innovative automatic and semi-automatic machines are designed to cut, strip, crimp and mark all types of wire and cable.

Manchester, New Hampshire, USA

Other

Packaging Technology and Design Challenge for Fine Pitch Micro-Bump Cu-Pillar and BOT (Direct Bond on Substrate-Trace) Using TCNCP

Dec 02, 2015 | Myung-June Lee -Altera Corporation, SungSoon Park, DongSu Ryu, MinJae Lee - Amkor Technology, Hank Saiki, Seiji Mori, Makoto Nagai - NTK Technologies.

(Thermal Compression with Non-Conductive Paste Underfill) Method.

The companies writing this paper have jointly developed Copper (Cu) Pillar micro-bump and TCNCP(Thermal Compression with Non-Conductive Paste) technology over the last two+ years. The Cu Pillar micro-bump and TCNCP is one of the platform technologies, which is essentially required for 2.5D/3D chip stacking as well as cost effective SFF (small form factor) package enablement.

Although the baseline packaging process methodology for a normal pad pitch (i.e. inline 50μm) within smaller chip size (i.e. 100 mm2) has been established and are in use for HVM production, there are several challenges to be addressed for further development for commercialization of finer bump pitch with larger die (i.e. ≤50μm tri-tier bond pad with the die larger than 400mm2).

This paper will address the key challenges of each field, such as the Cu trace design on a substrate for robust micro-joint reliability, TCNCP technology, and substrate technology (i.e. structure, surface finish). Technical recommendations based on the lessons learned from a series of process experimentation will be provided, as well. Finally, this technology has been used for the successful launching of the company FPGA products with SFF packaging technology....

Publisher: Altera Corporation

Altera Corporation

Semiconductor Company which design FBGA and its own PCB Board to test our chips.

Bayan Lepas, Penang, Malaysia

OEM

HCFC-225 Phaseout - What Now?

Dec 01, 2015 | Ed Kanegsberg

On January 1, 2015, nine months from APEX 2014, the production and use restrictions on HCFC-225 will be in effect throughout the United States. This phase out is encompassing in scope. This phase out will have significant technical, performance, and economic implications for the electronics industry. The regulatory situation remains fluid. A number of alternative solvents have been or are in the process of being developed. We discuss the options for assemblers and component manufacturers....

Publisher: BFK Solutions LLC

BFK Solutions LLC

BFK Solutions, the industry leader in critical cleaning consulting, helps manufacturers achieve the best choices for reliable, value-added, cost-effective product cleaning.

Pacific Palisades, California, USA

Consultant

Study of Various PCBA Surface Finishes

Nov 25, 2015 | Georgie Thein, David Geiger, and Murad Kurwa.

In this study various printed circuit board surface finishes were evaluated, including: organic solderability preservative (OSP), plasma finish (PF), immersion silver (IAg), electroless nickel / immersion silver (ENIS), electroless nickel / immersion gold hi-phosphorus (ENIG Hi-P), and electroless nickel / electroless palladium / immersion gold (ENEPIG). To verify the performance of PF as a post-treatment option, it was added to IAg, ENIG Hi-P, and ENEPIG to compare with non-treated. A total of nine groups of PCB were evaluated. Each group contains 30 boards, with the exception on ENIS where only 8 boards were available....

Publisher: Flex (Flextronics International)

Flex (Flextronics International)

Flextronics is a global full-service supplier of a full spectrum of value-added Electronic Manufacturing Services.

Singapore, Singapore

Design, Service Provider

HALT Testing of Backward Soldered BGAs on a Military Product

Nov 19, 2015 | B. Gumpert, B. Fox, L. Woody

The move to lead free (Pb-free) electronics by the commercial industry has resulted in an increasing number of ball grid array components (BGAs) which are only available with Pb-free solder balls. The reliability of these devices is not well established when assembled using a standard tin-lead (SnPb) solder paste and reflow profile, known as a backward compatible process. Previous studies in processing mixed alloy solder joints have demonstrated the importance of using a reflow temperature high enough to achieve complete mixing of the SnPb solder paste with the Pb-free solder ball. Research has indicated that complete mixing can occur below the melting point of the Pb-free alloy and is dependent on a number of factors including solder ball composition, solder ball to solder paste ratio, and peak reflow times and temperatures. Increasing the lead content in the system enables full mixing of the solder joint with a reduced peak reflow temperature, however, previous research is conflicting regarding the effect that lead percentage has on solder joint reliability in this mixed alloy solder joint....

Publisher: Lockheed Martin Corporation

Lockheed Martin Corporation

Lockheed Martin is a global security and aerospace company that employs about 112,000 people worldwide and is principally engaged in the research, design, development and manufacturing of advanced technology systems.

Bethesda, Maryland, USA

Other

The Perfect Copper Surface

Nov 12, 2015 | Eric Stafstrom; Technic Inc, Garo Chehirian; Tech-Etch.

In order to provide the functionality in today’s electronics, printed circuit boards are approaching the complexity of semiconductors. For flexible circuits with 1 mil lines and spaces, this means no nodules, no pits, and excellent ductility with thinner deposits. One of the areas that has to change to get to this plateau of technology is acid copper plating. Acid copper systems have changed in minor increments since their introduction decades ago. However, the basic cell design using soluble anodes in slabs or baskets has for the most part remained the same. Soluble, phosphorized, copper anodes introduce particulate and limits the ability to control plating distribution....

Publisher: Technic Inc.

Technic Inc.

Manufacturer of advanced process chemistry for plating, masking and stripping. Custom manufacturing of automated equipment for electrodeposion including; hoist systems, reel-to-reel and continuous vertical processing equipment.

Cranston, Rhode Island, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Manufacturer of Assembly Material

Print Performance Studies Comparing Electroform and Laser-Cut Stencils

Nov 05, 2015 | Rachel Miller Short, William E. Coleman Ph.D.; Photo Stencil | Joseph Perault; Parmi.

There has been recent activity and interest in Laser-Cut Electroform blank foils as an alternative to normal Electroform stencils. The present study will investigate and compare the print performance in terms of % paste transfer as well the dispersion in paste transfer volume for a variety of Electroform and Laser-Cut stencils with and without post processing treatments. Side wall quality will also be investigated in detail. A Jabil solder paste qualification test board will be used as the PCB test vehicle....

Publisher: Photo Stencil LLC

Photo Stencil LLC

Photo Stencil provides high-performance stencils, squeegee blades, thick film and metal mask screens and tooling for the surface mount technology (SMT) assembly, solar, and semiconductor industries.

Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Novel Approaches for Minimizing Pad Cratering

Oct 29, 2015 | Chen Xu, Yunhu Lin; Alcatel-Lucent, Yuan Zeng, Pericles A. Kondos; Unovis-Solutions.

With the electronic industry moving towards lead-free assembly, traditional SnPb-compatible laminates need to be replaced with lead-free compatible laminates that can withstand the higher reflow temperature required by lead-free solders. Lead-free compatible laminates with improved heat resistance have been developed to meet this challenge but they are typically more brittle than SnPb laminates causing some to be more susceptible to pad cratering. In this paper, two novel approaches for minimizing pad cratering will be discussed. Preliminary results which validate the two approaches will also be presented....

Publisher: Alcatel-Lucent

Alcatel-Lucent

Alcatel-Lucent- Enterprise Business Group is a world leader in the delivery of communications solutions for businesses, including contact center software, small/medium business telephony and IP addres

Calabasas, California, USA

Service Provider

Tin Whisker Risk Management by Conformal Coating

Oct 22, 2015 | Linda Woody, William Fox; Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control

The objective of this study is to evaluate conformal coatings for mitigation of tin whisker growth. The conformal coatings chosen for the experiment are acrylic, polyurethane and parylene. Also included in this paper are tin whisker inspection results of tin-plated braiding and wire that was exposed to an environment of 50°C with 50% relative humidity for over five years....

Publisher: Lockheed Martin Corporation

Lockheed Martin Corporation

Lockheed Martin is a global security and aerospace company that employs about 112,000 people worldwide and is principally engaged in the research, design, development and manufacturing of advanced technology systems.

Bethesda, Maryland, USA

Other

Optimizing the Insulated Metal Substrate Application with Proper Material Selection and Circuit Fabrication

Oct 15, 2015 | Dave Sommervold, Chris Parker, Steve Taylor, Garry Wexler

The ever expanding growth in the use of insulated metal substrates (IMS) in power electronics requires a focus on material and mechanical configuration for each application. By optimizing the material makeup and printed board format, performance and reliability expectations can be further achieved. The thermal performance and electrical isolation needs are driven by the power requirements, but considerations of temperature range, mechanical durability and format, along with the physical package surrounding the substrate must also be managed. With a variety of material configurations and circuit format capabilities, the choices become a balancing of options to maximize performance and minimizing cost through Design For Manufacturability (DFM) in the circuit board fabrication. These challenges present the IMS printed board fabricator with material selections and fabrication processes unlike those for other printed board or ceramic applications....

Publisher: The Bergquist Company

The Bergquist Company

Bergquist, now a part of Henkel, supplies thermal-management solutions for electronic applications, serving a variety of industries ranging from automotive to consumer and industrial electronics as well as LED lighting.

Chanhassen, Minnesota, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material

Preparing for Increased Electrostatic Discharge Device Sensitivity

Oct 08, 2015 | Julian A. Montoya, Intel Corporation Hillsboro, Oregon

With the push for ever improving performance on semiconductor component I/O interfaces, semiconductor components are being driven into a realm which makes them more sensitive to electrostatic discharge, potentially increasing in sensitivity by 50% every 3-5 years. Today, the majority of modern day semiconductor components are being designed to meet 250Volts of charge device model sensitivity, and that could decrease to 125Volts in the next 3-5 years, and could again decrease to 50Volts-70Volts in the following 3-5 years. The entire electronics industry must prepare for this challenge....

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Printing of Solder Paste - A Quality Assurance Methodology

Oct 01, 2015 | Lars Bruno and Tord Johnson Ericsson AB and MTEK Consulting AB

Solder paste printing is known to be one of the most difficult processes to quality assure in electronic manufacturing. The challenge increases as the technology development moves toward a mix between large modules and small chip components on large and densely populated printed circuit boards. Having a process for quality assurance of the solder paste print is fast becoming a necessity.

This article describes a method to ensure quality secured data from both solder paste printers and inspection machines in electronic assembly manufacturing. This information should be used as feedback in order to improve the solder paste printing process....

Publisher: Ericsson AB

Ericsson AB

Ericsson AB manufactures and markets radio and television communication equipment. The company was formerly known as Ericsson Radio Systems AB. Ericsson AB (Sweden) operates as a subsidiary of Ericsson.

Stockholm, Sweden

Other

Gold Stud Bump Flip Chip Bonding on Molded Interconnect Devices

Sep 23, 2015 | Dick Pang, Weifeng Liu, Anwar Mohammed, Elissa Mckay, Teresita Villavert and Murad Kurwa

A molded interconnect device (MID) is an injection molded thermoplastic substrate which incorporates a conductive circuit pattern and integrates both mechanical and electrical functions. (...) Flip chip bonding of bare die on MID can be employed to fully utilize MID’s advantage in device miniaturization. Compared to the traditional soldering process, thermo-compression bonding with gold stud bumps provides a clear advantage in its fine pitch capability. However, challenges also exist. Few studies have been made on thermocompression bonding on MID substrate, accordingly little information is available on process optimization, material compatibility and bonding reliability. Unlike solder reflow, there is no solder involved and no “self-alignment,” therefore the thermo-compression bonding process is significantly more dependent on the capability of the machine for chip assembly alignment....

Publisher: Flex (Flextronics International)

Flex (Flextronics International)

Flextronics is a global full-service supplier of a full spectrum of value-added Electronic Manufacturing Services.

Singapore, Singapore

Design, Service Provider

Method for the Manufacture of an Aluminum Substrate PCB and its Advantages

Sep 17, 2015 | Joseph Fjelstad

RoHS legislated restrictions on the materials used in electronics manufacture have imparted significant challenges on the electronics industry since their introduction in 2006. The greatest impacts have been felt by the mandated elimination of lead from electronic solder followed by the demand for the elimination of haloids from flame retardants used in traditional PCB laminates. In the years which have followed the electronics industry has been beset with a host of new challenges in its effort to comply. Failure mechanisms, both new and old, have surfaced which demand solution and the industry suppliers and manufacturing technologists have worked diligently to remedy those vexing faults through the development of a wide range of new materials and equipment for both board manufacture and assembly, along with modifications to the processes used in the manufacture and assembly of printed circuit boards....

Publisher: Verdant Electronics

Verdant Electronics

Pioneers in the area of solderless assembly technology and originators of the OCCAM process. Developing IP for next and future generations of high reliability and better performing electronic products.

Seattle, Washington, USA

Assembly

New High-Performance Organophosphorus Flame Retardant

Sep 10, 2015 | Kimberly M. White, Ph.D., Daniel De Schryver, Ph.D., and Randy Chaya

A new non-halogen flame retardant has been developed and is useful for a variety of high performance applications. This non-reactive phosphorus-based material satisfies fire safety needs for a broad range of resins including epoxy, polyolefin, and polyamide. The combination of excellent flame retardant efficiency, high thermal stability and exceptional electrical properties is unique to this organophosphorus flame retardant and makes it a breakthrough technology for high speed, high frequency use in fast growing wireless and wired infrastructures. Resin performance data, including formulations with synergists, are presented in this paper....

Publisher: Albemarle Corporation

Albemarle Corporation

Albemarle is a leading specialty chemical company providing innovative chemistry solutions to customers in over 100 countries around the world.

Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA

Components/Substrates

Embedded Fibers Enhance Nano-Scale Interconnections

Sep 03, 2015 | V. Desmaris, S. Shafiee, A. Saleem, A. Johansson and P. Marcoux

While the density of chip-to-chip and chip-to-package component interconnections increases and their size decreases the ease of manufacture and the interconnection reliability are being reduced. This paper will introduce the use of embedded fibers in the interconnections as a means of addressing these issues....

Publisher: Smoltek AB

Smoltek AB

Smoltek offers a proprietary conductive nano-scale carbon technology tailored to support the future needs of the semiconductor industry.

Gothenburg, Sweden

Other

Adhesive Backed Plastic Stencils vs Mini Metal Stencils

Aug 27, 2015 | Bob Wettermann, MIT

Ever since there has been a widespread usage of surface mount parts, the trend of continued shrinkage of devices with ever finer pitches has continued to challenge PCB assemblers for the rework of same. Todays' pitches are commonly 0.5 to 0.4mm with packages of tiny outline sizes, 5 -10mm square, making the rework of such devices a challenge. In addition to the handling and inspection challenges comes the board density. Spacing to neighboring components continues to be compressed so the rework techniques should not damage neighboring components....

Publisher: Business Electronics Soldering Technologies (BEST) Inc.

Business Electronics Soldering Technologies (BEST) Inc.

BEST offers professional rework, repair and prototype builds of PCBs. Our experienced instructors teach professional soldering classes as we are an IPC certified training center.

Rolling Meadows, Illinois, USA

Repair/Rework, Service Provider, Soldering, Training / Education

Challenges for Step Stencils with Design Guidelines for Solder Paste Printing

Aug 25, 2015 | Carmina Läntzsch, Georg Kleemann

The stencil printing process is one of the most critical processes in the electronic production. Due to the requirement: "faster and smaller" it is necessary to place components with different paste volume close together without regard to solder paste printing. In our days it is no longer possible to control the solder paste volume only by adjustment of the aperture dimensions. The requirements of solder paste volumes for specific components are realized by different thicknesses of metal sheets in one stencil with so called step stencils. The step-down stencil is required when it is desirable to print fine-pitch devices using a thinner stencil foil, but print other devices using a thicker stencil foil.

The paper presents the innovative technology of step-up and step-down stencils in a laser cutting and laser welding process. The step-up/step-down stencil is a special development for the adjustment of solder paste quantity, fulfilling the needs of placement and soldering. This includes the laser cutting and laser welding process as well as the resulting stencil characteristics and the potential of the printing process....

Publisher: LaserJob

LaserJob

Founded in 1992, LaserJob specializes in laser-cut stencils for printed circuit boards used in electronic devices.

Fürstenfeldbruck, Germany

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

SELECT CONFORMAL COAT FORMULATION FOR PCB ENVIRONMENT

Aug 20, 2015 | Wes Noble

Temperature and Humidity on Selective Conformal Coating It is well known that selective conformal coating on printed circuit board (PCB) assemblies provides unparallel protection for PCB’s. Nevertheless, concentrated conditions of humidity, water, and high temperatures can have negative effects on the conformal coating itself causing it to fail and become inapt for its intended purpose. Taking this into consideration, it is prudent to choose the right type of conformal coating that best suits the application and environmental conditions under which an assembly is likely to undergo in use. The proper conformal coating will significantly reduce the likelihood of failure/rejection, saving both valuable time and money for any manufacturing process....

Publisher: ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

Manufacturer of Fluid Dispensing Equipment for Selective Conformal Coating, Potting, Encasulation & Underfill including Inspection, Conveying and Curing. Total Solution Fluid Dispensing & Conformal Cocating Process Lines.

Deer Park, Washington, USA

Adhesives/Dispensing, Inspection, Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Soldering, Turnkey

Implementing Robust Bead Probe Test Processes into Standard Pb-Free Assembly

Aug 20, 2015 | John McMahon P.Eng, Tom Blaszczyk, Peter Barber

Increasing system integration and component densities continue to significantly reduce the opportunity to access nets using standard test points. Over time the size of test points has been drastically reduced (as small as 0.5 mm in diameter) but current product design parameters have created space and access limitations that remove even the option for these test points. Many high speed signal lines have now been restricted to inner layers only. Where surface traces are still available for access, bead probe technology is an option that reduces test point space requirements as well as their effects on high speed nets and distributes mechanical loading away from BGA footprints enabling test access and reducing the risk of mechanical defects associated with the concentration of ICT spring forces under BGA devices.

Building on Celestica's previous work characterizing contact resistance associated with Pr-free compatible surface finishes and process chemistry; this paper will describe experimentation to define a robust process window for the implementation of bead probe and similar bump technology that is compatible with standard Pb-free assembly processes. Test Vehicle assembly process, test methods and "Design of Experiments" will be described. Bead Probe formation and deformation under use will also be presented along with selected results....

Publisher: Celestica Corporation

Celestica Corporation

A multinational electronics manufacturing services (EMS) company.

Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Manufacturer's Rep

NON-CONTACT FLUID DISPENSING WITH PS-8200 JETTING VALVE

Aug 18, 2015 | Brian Stumm

Jetting Valve Technology Superior to Needle Dispensing Compared to traditional needle dispensing technology, jetting valve technology is the most effective method for quick and accurate fluid dispensing. Injection technology has many advantages, it provides a combination of high-speed, high quality and low cost production for fluid dispensing processes. Instead of putting focus on getting the application done, jet dispense technology focuses on performance, providing applications like underfill, potting and encapsulation with more precision than ever before. Improved Fluid Dispensing Speed and Accuracy Non-contact jetting valves offer a significant advantage over traditional needle dispense valves. Jetting Valve Dispenser precision reaches to 200µm with dot diameter or line width as small as 250µm and volumetric dispensing down to .0036µl. Minimum space between lines is 180µm and maximum fluid dispense speed is 200 dots/second. The following video illustrates quick, accurate fluid dispensing for an LED packaging application....

Publisher: ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

Manufacturer of Fluid Dispensing Equipment for Selective Conformal Coating, Potting, Encasulation & Underfill including Inspection, Conveying and Curing. Total Solution Fluid Dispensing & Conformal Cocating Process Lines.

Deer Park, Washington, USA

Adhesives/Dispensing, Inspection, Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Soldering, Turnkey

CONFORMAL COATING FOR WATER RESISTANT CIRCUIT ASSEMBLIES

Aug 18, 2015 | Brian Stumm

Why Selectively Conformal Coat the Electronic Assembly? Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are employed in a variety of products and devices, and this means that it might be necessary for your PCBs to be moisture resistant. It is important to choose the right type of conformal coating so you need not worry about the durability of your product. Fortunately, there are several options available that can help, and you can even use selective conformal coating robots to provide proper application of the coating....

Publisher: ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

Manufacturer of Fluid Dispensing Equipment for Selective Conformal Coating, Potting, Encasulation & Underfill including Inspection, Conveying and Curing. Total Solution Fluid Dispensing & Conformal Cocating Process Lines.

Deer Park, Washington, USA

Adhesives/Dispensing, Inspection, Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Soldering, Turnkey

ULTRAVIOLET (UV) CURING TECHNOLOGY

Aug 18, 2015 | Wes Noble

What is UV Curing? “Ultraviolet (UV) light is an electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 400 nm to 100 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.” (Source: Wikipedia). Ultraviolet or UV curing is used to create a photochemical reaction using high intensity Ultraviolet (UV) energy or “light” to quickly dry inks, adhesives or conformal coatings. Most materials cure with a UV wavelength around 350 ~ 400nm although some materials require UVC energy near 255nm. There are many advantages to using UV curing over other traditional methods of curing. Not only will it increase production speed, it assists in creating a better bond, and improves scratch and solvent resistance. When compared to other methods of curing, UV curing generates a more reliable cured product at a much higher rate of production in a considerably shorter period of time....

Publisher: ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

Manufacturer of Fluid Dispensing Equipment for Selective Conformal Coating, Potting, Encasulation & Underfill including Inspection, Conveying and Curing. Total Solution Fluid Dispensing & Conformal Cocating Process Lines.

Deer Park, Washington, USA

Adhesives/Dispensing, Inspection, Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Soldering, Turnkey

Improve Crimp Quality to Increase Productivity

Aug 17, 2015 | Pete Doyon, VP, Product Management, Schleuniger, Inc.

Since a high percentage of product failures can be traced to poor electrical connections, crimp quality is of paramount importance. There are many factors that come into play that affect crimp quality and knowing the relevant factors, and to what extent each factor affects the end result, will help to guide the process engineer towards achieving the best possible results. ...

Publisher: Schleuniger, Inc.

Schleuniger, Inc.

Schleuniger, Inc. is a leading manufacturer of wire processing equipment. Our innovative automatic and semi-automatic machines are designed to cut, strip, crimp and mark all types of wire and cable.

Manchester, New Hampshire, USA

Other

Pad Cratering Susceptibility Testing with Acoustic Emission

Aug 13, 2015 | Wong Boon San, Julie Silk; Agilent Technologies | Richard Nordstrom, Ph.D.; Acoustic Technology Group,

Pad cratering has become more prevalent with the switch to lead free solders and lead free compatible laminates. This mainly is due to the use of higher reflow temperature, stiffer Pb-free solder alloys, and the more brittle Pb-free compatible laminates. However, pad cratering is difficult to detect by monitoring electric resistance since pad cratering initiates before an electrical failure occurs.

Several methods have been developed to evaluate laminate materials' resistance to pad cratering. Pad-solder level tests include ball shear, ball pull and pin pull. The detailed methods for ball shear, ball pull, and pin pull testing are documented in an industry standard IPC-9708. Bansal, et al. proposed to use acoustic emission (AE) sensors to detect pad cratering during four-point bend test. Currently there is an industry-working group working on test guidelines for acoustic emission measurement during mechanical testing....

Publisher: Agilent Technologies, Inc.

Agilent Technologies, Inc.

World's premier measurement company, providing the critical tools and technologies that sense, measure, and interpret the physical and biological world.

Loveland, Colorado, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment

Enclosed Media Printing as an Alternative to Metal Blades

Aug 06, 2015 | Michael L. Martel

Fine pitch/fine feature solder paste printing in PCB assembly has become increasingly difficult as board geometries have become ever more compact. The printing process itself, traditionally the source of 70% of all assembly defects, finds its process window narrowing. The technology of metal blade squeegees, with the aid of new materials, understanding, and settings such as blade angle, has kept pace with all but the smallest applications, e.g., 200μ - .50 AR and 150μ - .375 AR, which have been pushing blade printing technology to its limits.

Enclosed media print head technology has existed, and has been under increasing development, as an alternative to metal squeegee blade printing. Until recently, the performance of enclosed print heads had been comparable to the very best metal squeegees, but advances in enclosed print media technology have now made it a superior alternative to squeegee blades in virtually all applications....

Publisher: Speedline Technologies, Inc.

Speedline Technologies, Inc.

Speedline Technologies serves the electronics assembly and semiconductor packaging industries with class-leading equipment, responsive support and unparalleled process knowledge.

Franklin, Massachusetts, USA

Adhesives/Dispensing, Cleaning, Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Screen Printing, Soldering

5 Axis Fluid Dispensing

Jul 31, 2015 | Brian Stumm

Technology is in constant change and circuit assembly is no different. It is becoming more and more advanced as needs change and demands for more capabilities increase. In order to meet these demands, equipment manufacturers are integrating the latest innovations and tools to serve the industry. The need to better protect printed circuit assemblies from harsh environments using automated selective conformal coating is becoming a must. 5 axis fluid dispensing allows conformal coating to be applied to printed circuit assemblies like never before....

Publisher: ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

Manufacturer of Fluid Dispensing Equipment for Selective Conformal Coating, Potting, Encasulation & Underfill including Inspection, Conveying and Curing. Total Solution Fluid Dispensing & Conformal Cocating Process Lines.

Deer Park, Washington, USA

Adhesives/Dispensing, Inspection, Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Soldering, Turnkey

Thermal Curing of Conformal Coatings

Jul 27, 2015 | Wes Noble

When it comes to the application of conformal coating, curing the coating plays a key role in the circuit assembly and selective conformal coating process. Curing conformal coating occurs after the coating spray/dispense process is complete. The coating is considered “cured” when the conformal coating on the circuit assembly is sufficiently tack-free to be handled. Curing can sometimes be accomplished at room temperature but takes a considerable amount of time to dry. Accelerated conformal coating curing decreases this drying period, the cure process reaches either the tack-free or a fully dried state but not quite having fully cured properties. Accelerated curing techniques include one or a combination of heat, moisture, UV light, and chemical reaction curing. This article focuses primarily on thermal or heat curing....

Publisher: ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

Manufacturer of Fluid Dispensing Equipment for Selective Conformal Coating, Potting, Encasulation & Underfill including Inspection, Conveying and Curing. Total Solution Fluid Dispensing & Conformal Cocating Process Lines.

Deer Park, Washington, USA

Adhesives/Dispensing, Inspection, Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Soldering, Turnkey

Measuring Conformal Coating Thickness

Jul 21, 2015 | Roger Plough

Achieving an even coat at the right desired thickness is a major challenge when it comes to applying conformal coating to a Printed Circuit Board (PCB). Applying a coating too thin will ultimately render the electronic assembly vulnerable to potential environmental risks therefore defeating the purpose of the coating. Apply the coat too thick, and it could leave the electronic specific components non-functional therefore destroying the electronic assembly entirely. Coating thickness must meet quality specifications. Measurements for coating thickness may be taken while film is dry or wet. Once measurements are recorded, thickness is compared to quality specifications and fluid dispensing automation machinery is calibrated as necessary. There are a handful of methods for measuring conformal coating thickness that are commonly used in the Electronic Manufacturing Services (EMS) and Original Electronic Manufacturer (OEM) industries. A few commonly used methods for checking conformal coating thickness include:...

Publisher: ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

Manufacturer of Fluid Dispensing Equipment for Selective Conformal Coating, Potting, Encasulation & Underfill including Inspection, Conveying and Curing. Total Solution Fluid Dispensing & Conformal Cocating Process Lines.

Deer Park, Washington, USA

Adhesives/Dispensing, Inspection, Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Soldering, Turnkey

Testing Printed Circuit Boards for Creep Corrosion in Flowers of Sulfur Chamber

Jul 16, 2015 | Haley Fu; iNEMI, Prabjit Singh, Levi Campbell, Jing Zhang; IBM Corporation, Wallace Ables; Dell Corporation, Dem Lee, Jeffrey Lee; iST-Integrated Service Technology, Jane Li, Solomon Zhang; Lenovo Limited Corporation, Simon Lee; The Dow Chemical Company.

Qualification of electronic hardware from a corrosion resistance standpoint has traditionally relied on stressing the hardware in a variety of environments. Before the development of tests based on mixed flowing gas (MFG), hardware was typically exposed to temperature-humidity cycling. In the pre-1980s era, component feature sizes were relatively large. Corrosion, while it did occur, did not in general degrade reliability. There were rare instances of the data center environments releasing corrosive gases and corroding hardware. One that got a lot of publicity was the corrosion by sulfur-bearing gases given off by data center carpeting. More often, corrosion was due to corrosive flux residues left on as-manufactured printed circuit boards (PCBs) that led to ion migration induced electrical shorting. Ion migration induced failures also occurred inside the PCBs due to poor laminate quality and moisture trapped in the laminate layers....

Publisher: iNEMI (International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative)

iNEMI (International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative)

iNEMI is an industry-led consortium focused on identifying and closing technology gaps, which includes the development and integration of the electronics industry supply infrastructure.

Herndon, Virginia, USA

What is Kelvin Test?

Jul 14, 2015 | Rick Meraw, Todd Kolmodin, Manfred Ludwig, Holger Kern.

The PCB industry is ever changing and adapting to new technologies. OEM specifications and requirements have also advanced due to these technologies. In some cases the OEMs are asking for a low resistance test to be performed on some or all electrical test nets of the PCB or on the holes of the PCB. This requirement is typically not well defined on the fabrication drawing and that leads to misleading conclusions by the fabrication house (...)

This paper will use the data gathered by the company’s operations to outline what a 4-wire Kelvin test is and how it can be used. Several examples will be illustrated of what the 4 wire Kelvin test can and cannot do. A clear definition of what limitations are present during the testing operation will be defined. The paper will assist designers in understanding how the low resistance test can assist them and also identify causes that can identify unwanted concerns/issues....

Publisher: Gardien Services USA

Gardien Services USA

The Gardien Group is the world's largest provider of independent testing services to the PCB manufacturing industry.

Hillsboro, Oregon, USA

Test Services

Reliability Study of Bottom Terminated Components

Jul 14, 2015 | Jennifer Nguyen, Hector Marin, David Geiger, Anwar Mohammed, and Murad Kurwa

Bottom terminated components (BTC) are leadless components where terminations are protectively plated on the underside of the package. They are all slightly different and have different names, such as QFN (quad flat no lead), DFN (dual flat no lead), LGA (land grid array) and MLF (micro lead-frame. BTC assembly has increased rapidly in recent years. This type of package is attractive due to its low cost and good performance like improved signal speeds and enhanced thermal performance.

However, bottom terminated components do not have any leads to absorb the stress and strain on the solder joints. It relies on the correct amount of solder deposited during the assembly process for having a good solder joint quality and reliable reliability. Voiding is typically seen on the BTC solder joint, especially on the thermal pad of the component. Voiding creates a major concern on BTC component’s solder joint reliability. There is no current industry standard on the voiding criteria for bottom terminated component. The impact of voiding on solder joint reliability and the impact of voiding on the heat transfer characteristics at BTC component are not well understood. This paper will present some data to address these concerns....

Publisher: Flex (Flextronics International)

Flex (Flextronics International)

Flextronics is a global full-service supplier of a full spectrum of value-added Electronic Manufacturing Services.

Singapore, Singapore

Design, Service Provider

Predicting Fatigue of Solder Joints Subjected to High Number of Power Cycles

Jul 09, 2015 | Craig Hillman, Nathan Blattau, Matt Lacy

Solder joint reliability of SMT components connected to printed circuit boards is well documented. However, much of the testing and data is related to high-strain energy thermal cycling experiments relevant to product qualification testing (i.e., -55C to 125C). Relatively little information is available on low-strain, high-cycle fatigue behavior of solder joints, even though this is increasingly common in a number of applications due to energy savings sleep mode, high variation in bandwidth usage and computational requirements, and normal operational profiles in a number of power supply applications.

In this paper, 2512 chip resistors were subjected to a high (>50,000) number of short duration (<10 min) power cycles. Environmental conditions and relevant material properties were documented and the information was inputted into a number of published solder joint fatigue models. The requirements of each model, its approach (crack growth or damage accumulation) and its relevance to high cycle fatigue are discussed....

Publisher: DfR Solutions

DfR Solutions

DfR Solutions has world-renowned expertise in applying the science of Reliability Physics to electrical and electronics technologies, and is a leading provider of quality, reliability, and durability (QRD) research and consulting for the electronics industry.

College Park, Maryland, USA

Service Provider

Reliability Screening of Lower Melting Point Pb-Free Alloys Containing Bi

Jul 01, 2015 | Joseph M. Juarez, Michael Robinson, Joel Heebink; Honeywell, Polina Snugovsky, Eva Kosiba, Jeffrey Kennedy, Zohreh Bagheri, Subramaniam Suthakaran, Marianne Romansky; Celestica.

Aerospace and military companies continue to exercise RoHS exemptions and to intensively research the long term attachment reliability of RoHS compliant solders. Their products require higher vibration, drop/shock performance, and combined-environment reliability than the conventional SAC305 alloy provides. The NASA-DoD Lead-Free Electronics Project confirmed that pad cratering is one of the dominant failure modes that occur in various board level reliability tests, especially under dynamic loading.

One possible route to improvement of the mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties of solder joints is the use of Pb-free solders with lower process temperatures. Lower temperatures help reduce the possibility of damaging the boards and components, and also may allow for the use of lower Tg board materials which are less prone to pad cratering defects. There are several Sn-Ag-Bi and Sn-Ag-Cu-Bi alloys which melt about 10°C lower than SAC305. The bismuth in these solder compositions not only reduces the melting temperature, but also improves thermo-mechanical behavior. An additional benefit of using Bi-containing solder alloys is the possibility to reduce the propensity to whisker growth...

Publisher: Honeywell International

Honeywell International

Honeywell is a Fortune 100 company that invents and manufactures technologies to address tough challenges linked to global macrotrends such as safety, security, and energy.

Morristown, New Jersey, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Return on Investment of a Pre-Reflow AOI System

Jun 30, 2015 | CyberOptics Corporation

This paper describes the losses from defects at the placement process in the SMT line. Two case studies of European and Taiwanese SMT manufacturers illustrate the actual losses from their defects. An evaluation method to select a pre-reflow AOI system maximizing the return on investment (ROI) is introduced. In the end, ROIs of three commercial pre-reflow AOI systems are compared to demonstrate the importance of selecting an appropriate AOI system. This paper will increase the probability that anyone installing an AOI system during the pre-reflow process will obtain a successful gain with short payback period....

Publisher: CyberOptics Corporation

CyberOptics Corporation

CYBEROPTICS is a global leader in high-precision 3D sensors that significantly improve yields and productivity in the 3D scanning and metrology, Surface Mount Technology & Semiconductor Markets

Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA

Inspection

Automated Fluid Dispensing for Epoxy

Jun 30, 2015 | Eric Sari

Robotics for automated fluid dispensing have the ability to apply a variety of materials including epoxy, silicone, and acrylic coatings. These materials are extensively used in today’s high-speed fluid dispensers for the electronics industry.

Whether a dispenser is applying epoxy or another material, the central concept for applying any form of material remains the same. Specific points of an item being dispensed onto are programmed into the dispensing system. The automated fluid dispensers software interprets the programmed information and keeps the travel path in memory. A robotic arm moves fluid dispensing nozzles along this travel path and applies epoxy onto the surface of the item with precise accuracy. Machine speed can be adjusted to emit varying amounts of epoxy. The overall application process is auto-regulating and will not be disrupted....

Publisher: ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

Manufacturer of Fluid Dispensing Equipment for Selective Conformal Coating, Potting, Encasulation & Underfill including Inspection, Conveying and Curing. Total Solution Fluid Dispensing & Conformal Cocating Process Lines.

Deer Park, Washington, USA

Adhesives/Dispensing, Inspection, Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Soldering, Turnkey

Reduce labor by automating your Selective Conformal Coating process

Jun 22, 2015 | Brian Stumm, Wes Noble

Applying conformal coatings to electronics has come a long way since the days of manually coating circuit boards. The extreme accuracy and highly repetitive process of automated conformal coatings is moving the electronics industry towards a more defect-free era for conformal coating. It enables new forms of electronics to become better protected, making it possible for electronics to withstand harsher environments than ever before. The following article is meant to aid in clarifying the advantages of specialty coating systems over manual applications for selective conformal coating. ...

Publisher: ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

Manufacturer of Fluid Dispensing Equipment for Selective Conformal Coating, Potting, Encasulation & Underfill including Inspection, Conveying and Curing. Total Solution Fluid Dispensing & Conformal Cocating Process Lines.

Deer Park, Washington, USA

Adhesives/Dispensing, Inspection, Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Soldering, Turnkey

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