Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Papers and articles related to SMT, PCB & EMS industry.


  • Europlacer SMT Pick & Place Machines
  • Reflow Ovens
  • Precision, fluid dispensing systems for low volume, high mix, R&D, and high volume 24x7 production
  • Electronics manufacturing training materials - IPC, solder
  • PCB Rework Tools

837 SMT / PCB Assembly Related Technical Articles

How We Produce the Best Circuit Boards – Fast!

Jun 23, 2017 | Tuan Tran

Professionally assembling circuit boards used to be slow. Many circuit board manufacturers still take up to two weeks or longer to produce circuit boards according to customer design specifications. we have developed cutting edge processes to shorten that time to three to five days on average....

Publisher: Power Design Services

Power Design Services

Power Design Service's quick turn and hands-on customer service provides best-in-class printed circuit board, PCB, flex circuit and prototype design, fabrication, and assembly for your business.

San Jose, California, USA

Contract Manufacturer

What Is Turnkey Electronic Manufacturing?

Jun 23, 2017 | Tuan Tran

End-to-end PCB assembly by world-class companies like Power Design Services allows you to focus on your core competencies with the added benefits of reduced cost and time to market. From material procurement to circuit board design and manufacturing, and supply chain management, we serve your needs helping you reach customers faster. Here is an overview of what our turnkey electronic manufacturing services consist of, and how you can use them to reduce your build time and cost....

Publisher: Power Design Services

Power Design Services

Power Design Service's quick turn and hands-on customer service provides best-in-class printed circuit board, PCB, flex circuit and prototype design, fabrication, and assembly for your business.

San Jose, California, USA

Contract Manufacturer

Defect Features Detected by Acoustic Emission for Flip-Chip CGA/FCBGA/PBGA/FPBGA Packages and Assemblies

Jun 22, 2017 | Reza Ghaffarian, Ph.D.

C-mode scanning acoustic microscopy (C-SAM) is a non-destructive inspection technique showing the internal features of a specimen by ultrasound. The C-SAM is the preferred method for finding “air gaps” such as delamination, cracks, voids, and porosity. This paper presents evaluations performed on various advanced packages/assemblies especially flip-chip die version of ball grid array/column grid array (BGA/CGA) using C-SAM equipment. For comparison, representative x-ray images of the assemblies were also gathered to show key defect detection features of the two non-destructive techniques....

Publisher: Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Jet Propulsion Laboratory

The JPL is the lead U.S. center for robotic exploration of the solar system, and conducts major programs in space-based Earth sciences and astronomy.

Pasadena, California, USA

IPC Standards Certification Center, Training Provider

Nondestructive Inspection of Underfill Layers Stacked up in Ceramics-Organics-Ceramics Packages with Scanning Acoustic Tomography (SAT)

Jun 15, 2017 | Justin Zeng, Francoise Sarrazin, Jie Lian, Ph.D., Zhen (Jane) Feng, Ph.D., Lea Su, Dennis Willie, David Geiger - Flex International Inc., Masafumi Takada, Natsuki Sugaya - Hitachi Power Solutions, George Tint, Ph.D. - HDI Solutions

Ceramics packages are being used in the electronics industry to operate the devices in harsh environments. In this paper we report a study on acoustic imaging technology for nondestructively inspecting underfill layers connecting organic interposers sandwiched between two ceramics substrates.

First, we inspected the samples with transmission mode of scanning acoustic tomography (SAT) system, an inspection routine usually employed in assembly lines because of its simpler interpretation criteria: flawed region blocks the acoustic wave and appears darker. In this multilayer sample, this approach does not offer the crucial information at which layer of underfill has flaws. To resolve this issue, we use C-Mode Scanning in reflection mode to image layer by layer utilizing ultrasound frequencies from 15MHz to 120MHz. Although the sample is thick and contains at least 5 internal material interfaces, we are able to identify defective underfill layer interfaces....

Publisher: Flex (Flextronics International)

Flex (Flextronics International)

Flextronics is a global full-service supplier of a full spectrum of value-added Electronic Manufacturing Services.

Singapore, Singapore

Design, Service Provider

When to Use Flex Circuit vs. Rigid Circuit Boards

Jun 14, 2017 | Tuan Tran

Flexible circuitry may be preferable to rigid circuitry in situations where space or weight is limited....

Publisher: Power Design Services

Power Design Services

Power Design Service's quick turn and hands-on customer service provides best-in-class printed circuit board, PCB, flex circuit and prototype design, fabrication, and assembly for your business.

San Jose, California, USA

Contract Manufacturer

Intermetallic Growth in Tin-Rich Solders

Jun 13, 2017 | Louis Zakraysek

For tin-rich solder alloys, 200 C (392 F) is an extreme temperature. Intermetallic growth in tin-copper systems is known to occur and is believed to bear a direct relationship to failure mechanisms. This study of morphological changes with time at elevated temperatures was made to determine growth rates of tin-copper intermetallics. Preferred growth directions, rates of thickening, and notable changes in morphology were observed.

Each of four tin-base alloys was flowed on copper and exposed to temperatures between 100 C and 200 C for time periods of up to 32 days. Metallographic sections were taken and the intermetallics were examined. Intermetallic layer thickening is characterized by several distinct stages. The initial growth of side plates is extremely rapid and exaggerated. This is followed by retrogression (spheroidization) of the elongated peaks and by general thick-...

Publisher: General Electric

General Electric

What makes GE great? According to a survey in FORTUNE magazine, GE is the most admired company in the world. We have great products and great processes, but most importantly, we have great people! To View Our Current Job Openings Please Visit Our Web

SCHENECTADY, New York, USA

Manufacturer of Components, Manufacturer of Assembled PCBs, Other, Recruiter / Employment Company

Establishing a Precision Stencil Printing Process for Miniaturized Electronics Assembly

Jun 13, 2017 | Chris Anglin

The advent of miniaturized electronics for mobile phones and other portable devices has required the assembly of smaller and smaller components. Currently 01005 passives and 0.3 mm CSPs are some of the components that must be assembled to enable these portable electronic devices. It is widely accepted that about 65% of all end of the line defects occur in the stencil printing process. Given all of the above, it is critical that a precision stencil printing process be developed to support miniaturized electronic assembly.

This paper is a summary of a significant amount of experimental data and process optimization techniques that were employed to establish a precision SMT printing process....

Publisher: Indium Corporation

Indium Corporation

Solder pastes, solder preforms, solder spheres, soldering fluxes, electrically-conductive adhesives. All alloys: tin-lead, lead-free, indium alloys, and more.

Utica, New York, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

Low-Cost Inkjet Printing Technology for the Rapid Prototyping of Transducers

Jun 08, 2017 | Bruno Ando, Salvatore Baglio, Vincenzo Marletta, Antonio Pistorio; DIEEI-University of Catania, Adi R. Bulsara, Teresa Emery; Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific

Recently, there has been an upsurge in efforts dedicated to developing low-cost flexible electronics by exploiting innovative materials and direct printing technologies. This interest is motivated by the need for low-cost mass-production, shapeable, and disposable devices, and the rapid prototyping of electronics and sensors. This review, following a short overview of main printing processes, reports examples of the development of flexible transducers through low-cost inkjet printing technology....

Publisher: DIEEI-University of Catania

DIEEI-University of Catania

Department of Electrical, Electronics and Computer Engineering (DIEEI).

Catania, Italy

School

Evaluating the Effects of Plasma Treatment prior to Conformal Coating on Eectronic Assemblies to Enhance Conformity of Coverage

Jun 01, 2017 | John D. Vanderford, Ann E. Paxton - Desich SMART Center, Dave Selestak - Nordson MARCH

The corrosion of Nickel-Palladium-Gold (Ni-Pd-Au) finish terminals in humid environments is known to be reduced with the application of a conformal coating such as acrylic. Corrosion has a higher rate of occurrence around the terminal ‘knee’ of a surface mount component, which may be reduced with the application of conformal coatings. Although radio frequency (RF) plasma processing is generally known to enhance conformity of conformal coating to surfaces through ionic bombardment, the effect on the functionality of assembled printed circuit boards (PCB) is not as well known.

The purpose of this study is to assess whether RF plasma processing can enhance the adhesive and coverage qualities of an acrylic conformal coating on PCBs, specifically on Ni-Pd-Au terminals with a knee, and if plasma processing has an effect on the electrical functionality of components and fully assembled PCB....

Publisher: Nordson MARCH

Nordson MARCH

Nordson MARCH is the global leader in plasma cleaning equipment and plasma applications technology. The company has designed and manufactured plasma equipment for more than 30 years.

Concord, California, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Cleaning, Component Preparation, Repair/Rework, OEM

Improve Assembly Turnaround For Tab-Routed Array Panelization

May 31, 2017 | Tuan Tran

These guidelines give the assembly team a standardized, no-nonsense method to produce a reliable panelization solution. By eliminating panelization guesswork, you ensure successful assembly even for complex projects....

Publisher: Power Design Services

Power Design Services

Power Design Service's quick turn and hands-on customer service provides best-in-class printed circuit board, PCB, flex circuit and prototype design, fabrication, and assembly for your business.

San Jose, California, USA

Contract Manufacturer

Model for Improvement of Fluxing Process on Selective Soldering Machines

May 25, 2017 | Goran Tasevski, Elena Papazoska

Purpose of this research is to identify the factors that directly influence the effectiveness of the fluxing process in selective soldering machines, using the design of experiment methodology with associated factors and levels used in the experiment. Final findings gives directions for set up of the optimal fluxing parameters that will enable appropriate flux appliance and to gain reduction of soldering quality issues which foundations are from this process....

Publisher: Visteon Electronics

Visteon Electronics

Visteon designs, engineers and manufactures vehicle cockpit electronics products and connected car solutions that deliver a rich, connected experience for drivers and passengers.

Van Buren Charter Township, Michigan, USA

Other

The First Reed Switch Auto Insertion Machine in the World hits the Market

May 21, 2017 | Denise Anderson-Rivas

Reed Switches, or Herkons, are extremely useful for many electronic applications. Reed Switches work by means of magnetism in reed relays and for electrical circuit control. In the presence of a magnetic field the reed will either open or close, depending on it's original positioning and purpose. They are extremely useful as they are hermetically sealed and can operate in almost any environment.

Reed Switch insertion into PCBs have historically been conducted by means of manual labor, by hand. As Auto Insertion mechanisms have advanced, there are new technologies on the market that can accommodate these highly useful switches via automated machines. Through Hole Technologies (THT) have advanced to now offer mechanized equipment to automate an assembly line that requires Reed Switch insertion. The first ever Reed Switch Machine is now available on the market for production assembly and auto insertion uses. This will make electronic products requiring Reed Switches easier to produce, faster, and more affordable for an entire manufacturing production. ...

Publisher: Shenzhen Southern Machinery Sales and Service Co., Ltd

Shenzhen Southern Machinery Sales and Service Co., Ltd

to provide you with guidance from the AI PCB design(DFM),AI process(NPI) to import equipment installation and auto insertion technology(THT) training, machine trouble shooting/upgrade/overhaul.

Shenzhen, China

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Manufacturer of Assembled PCBs, Design, Equipment Dealer / Broker, Service Provider

How to Use the Right Flux for the Selective Soldering Application

May 17, 2017 | Bruno Tolla Ph.D, Denis Jean, Xiang Wei Ph.D

The selective soldering application requires a combination of performance attributes that traditional liquid fluxes designed for wave soldering applications cannot fulfill. First, the flux deposition on the board needs to be carefully controlled. Proper fine tuning of the flux physicochemical characteristics combined with a process optimization are mandatory to strike the right balance between solderability and reliability. However, localization of the flux residue through the drop jet process is not enough to guarantee the expected performance level. The flux needs to be designed to minimize the impact of unavoidable spreading and splashing events.

From this perspective a fundamental understanding of the relationships between formulation and reliability is critical. In this application, thermal history of the flux residues (from room temperature to solder liquidus) is a key performance driver. Finally, it is necessary to conduct statistically designed experiments on industrial selective soldering machines in order to map the relationships between flux characteristics and selective process friendliness....

Publisher: Kester

Kester

A leading global supplier of assembly materials to the electronic assembly, component and microelectronic marketplaces.

Itasca, Illinois, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

Privacy Threats through Ultrasonic Side Channels on Mobile Devices

May 11, 2017 | Daniel Arp, Erwin Quiring, Christian Wressnegger and Konrad Rieck

Device tracking is a serious threat to the privacy of users, as it enables spying on their habits and activities. A recent practice embeds ultrasonic beacons in audio and tracks them using the microphone of mobile devices.

In this paper, we explore the capabilities, the current prevalence and technical limitations of this new tracking technique based on three commercial tracking solutions. To this end, we develop detection approaches for ultrasonic beacons and Android applications capable of processing these....

Publisher: Technical University Braunschweig

Technical University Braunschweig

The TU Braunschweig is the oldest institute of technology in Germany. It was founded in 1745 as Collegium Carolinum and is a member of TU9, an incorporated society of the most renowned and largest Ger

Brunswick, Germany

School

Development of a Consistent and Reliable Thermal Conductivity Measurement Method, Adapted to Typical Composite Materials Used in the PCB Industry

May 04, 2017 | François Lechleiter; Cimulec, Yves Jannot; Université de Lorraine

Most of today's printed circuit board base materials are anisotropic and it is not possible to use a simple method to measure thermal conductivity along the different axis, especially when a good accuracy is expected. Few base material suppliers' datasheet show X, Y and Z thermal conductivities. In most cases, a single value is given, moreover determined with a generic methodology, and not necessarily adapted to the reality of glass-reinforced composites with a strong anisotropy.

After reminding of the fundamentals in thermal science, this paper gives an overview of the state-of the art in terms of thermal conductivity measurement on PCB base materials, and some typical values. It finally proposes an innovative method called transient fin method, and associated test sample, to perform reliable and consistent in plane thermal conductivity measurement on anisotropic PCB base materials....

Publisher: CIMULEC

CIMULEC

Manufacturer of printed circuit boards for adapted technological and innovative solutions

Ennery, France

Manufacturer of Assembled PCBs

Industry 4.0 in USA: Risk

Apr 28, 2017 | Don Fitchett

A major drawback to Industry 4.0 that few write about is maintenance of an industry 4.0 plant. The maintenance aspect is a much greater and immediate drawback than even the commonly known major concern of security, and the lesser concern of system integration standards. Maintenance of 4.0 systems has, and will continue to result in related huge increases in process downtime. The barriers to overcoming the maintenance/downtime drawbacks of a 4.0 system are almost insurmountable. Has the Smart Manufacturing Leadership Coalition (SMLC) addressed the maintenance paradox? “... model also demands the ability to calculate and manage risk and uncertainty within very different operating structures. ..” Continue reading in pdf or for even more see and share http://bin95.com/Industry40inUSA.htm ...

1 comments.

Publisher: Business Industrial Network

Business Industrial Network

Offers training software and videos. Also on site training and seminars that qualify for CEUs to maintenance, engineering and management professionals.

St. Louis, Missouri, USA

Consultant, Publication or Online Resource, Service Provider, Software Manufacturer, Training Provider

Material Effects of Laser Energy When Processing Circuit Board Substrates during Depaneling

Apr 27, 2017 | Ahne Oosterhof, Eastwood Consulting

Using modern laser systems for the depanelization of circuit boards can create some challenges for the production engineer when it is compared to traditional mechanical singulation methods. Understanding the effects of the laser energy to the substrate material properly is essential in order to take advantage of the technology without creating unintended side effects.

This paper presents an in-depth analysis of the various laser system operating parameters that were performed to determine the resulting substrate material temperature changes. A theoretical model was developed and compared to actual measurements. The investigation includes how the temperature increase resulting from laser energy during depaneling affects the properties of the PCB substrate, which varies from no measurable change to a lowering of the surface resistance of the cut wall depending on the cutting parameters....

Publisher: LPKF Laser & Electronics

LPKF Laser & Electronics

With its broad product range LPKF is one of the world market leaders in the "in-house rapid PCB prototyping" and "StencilLaser" services

Tualatin, Oregon, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Drilling/Routing

A Guide to Successful Printed Circuit Board Documentation

Apr 24, 2017 | Tuan Tran

The process of taking a design from schematic to actual working prototype is a complex one, however, and proper documentation is the best way to simplify it....

Publisher: Power Design Services

Power Design Services

Power Design Service's quick turn and hands-on customer service provides best-in-class printed circuit board, PCB, flex circuit and prototype design, fabrication, and assembly for your business.

San Jose, California, USA

Contract Manufacturer

IST AG - Focus on Flow Sensors

Apr 20, 2017 | Innovative Sensor Technology

IST AG thin film mass flow sensors offer solutions for a wide variety of flow applications. The thin film and membrane technologies incorporate highly accurate temperature sensors and heaters as core elements of the sensors. IST AGs flow sensors are applicable in gas (liquids upon request), have an operating temperature range of -30 °C to +450 °C, and can measure low rate and direction from 0.0001 m/s (microflowSens) to 100 m/s (respectively from 1 mL/min to 10 L/min). In addition to measuring flow rates, our sensors can detect the presence of a liquid, biofilm or bubbles as well as indicate liquid level. Development channels guarantee the best possible adaptation of our sensors, whether in terms of dynamic range, response time, directional detection or ambient conditions. ...

Publisher: Innovative Sensor Technology USA Division

Innovative Sensor Technology USA Division

Innovative Sensor Technology is a manufacturer of thin-film platinum and nickel RTD temperature sensors, capacitive humidity sensors, mass flow sensors, conductivity and biosensors.

Las Vegas, Nevada, USA

Manufacturer of Components

High Throw Electroless Copper - Enabling new Opportunities for IC Substrates and HDI Manufacturing

Apr 20, 2017 | Tobias Sponholz, Lars-Eric Pribyl, Frank Brüning, Robin Taylor

The one constant in electronics manufacturing is change. Moore's Law, which successfully predicted a rate of change at which transistor counts doubled on Integrated Circuits (ICs) at lower cost for decades, is ceding to be an appropriate prediction tool. Increasing technical and economic requirements, deriving from the semiconductor environment, are cascaded down to the printed circuit and in particular to the IC substrate manufacturers. This is both a challenge and an opportunity for IC Substrate manufacturers, when dealing with the demands of the packaging market. (...)

This paper introduces two new electroless copper baths developed for IC substrates manufacturing based on Semi Additive Process (SAP) technology (hereafter referred to as E'less Copper IC) and HDI production (hereafter referred to as E'less Copper HDI) and optimized for high throw into BMVs. An introduction to reliable throwing power measurement methods based on scanning electron microscope (SEM) is given, followed by a compilation and discussion of key performance criteria for each application, namely throwing power, copper adhesion on the substrate, dry film adhesion and reliability....

Publisher: Atotech

Atotech

One of the world's leading suppliers of integrated production systems, chemistry, equipment, know-how and service for electroplating, semiconductor and printed circuit board manufacturing.

Berlin, Germany

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Manufacturer of Components, Components/Substrates

Six Reasons to Invest in Product Prototypes Early and Often

Apr 15, 2017 | Tuan Tran

Few things are more exciting to manufacturers than new product ideas. New designs, engineering challenges and the ability to deliver a new user experience are all rewarding hallmarks of innovation. However, the road that separates conceptualization and commercialization is riddled with tight turns and obstacles. Fast, efficient prototyping is one of the best ways to prepare yourself for the journey....

Publisher: Power Design Services

Power Design Services

Power Design Service's quick turn and hands-on customer service provides best-in-class printed circuit board, PCB, flex circuit and prototype design, fabrication, and assembly for your business.

San Jose, California, USA

Contract Manufacturer

WHERE RFID TAGS ARE USED

Apr 14, 2017 | catherine

RFID tags and labels have been used around in our life with rising trend, no matter where you go, RFID may used there. But someone still have such questions, where RFID tags are used? what are RFID tags used for? why use RFID tags? And where can I buy RFID tags? If you have such questions, congratulation! You come to the right place!...

A Study to Determine the Impact of Solder Powder Mesh Size and Stencil Technology Advancement on Deposition Volume when Printing Solder Paste

Apr 13, 2017 | Karl Seelig, Tim O'Neill

The drive to reduced size and increased functionality is a constant in the world of electronic devices. In order to achieve these goals, the industry has responded with ever-smaller devices and the equipment capable of handling these devices. The evolution of BGA packages and leadless devices is pushing existing technologies to the limit of current assembly techniques and materials.

As smaller components make their way into the mainstream PCB assembly market, PCB assemblers are reaching the limits of Type 3 solder paste, which is currently in use by most manufacturers.

The goal of this study is to determine the impact on solder volume deposition between Type 3, Type 4 and Type 5 SAC305 alloy powder in combination with stainless steel laser cut, electroformed and the emerging laser cut nano-coated stencils. Leadless QFN and μBGA components will be the focus of the test utilizing optimized aperture designs....

Publisher: AIM Solder

AIM Solder

AIM is a leading global manufacturer of tin-lead and lead-free solder assembly materials for the electronics industry.

Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

Kaphesion VSI Parylenes solution to Polyimide Adhesion

Apr 13, 2017 | Soraya Terrab

Parylene has been used for decades as a barrier layer to protect critical devices and components. The parylene deposition process typically requires an adhesion promotion step to make sure the parylene adheres well to the base substrate. Typical adhesion methods don't work well on Kapton and Polyamide, until VSI Parylene came up with a solution....

Publisher: VSI Parylene

VSI Parylene

VSI Parylene provides precision parylene conformal coating services to protect your critical components and devices. We have a Proven Process to go from first inquiry to final process.

Broomfield, Colorado, USA

Contract Manufacturer

Luceda Photonics Delivers a Silicon Photonics IC Solution in Tanner L-Edit.

Apr 06, 2017 | Wim Bogaerts, Pieter Dumon, Martin Fiers; Luceda Photonics, Jeff Miller; Mentor Graphics

Silicon photonics is an IC technology where data is transferred using light that is routed on the chip using optical waveguides (Figure 1). Silicon photonics is best known as a method to solve problems with high input/output bandwidth applications. For example, because of ever-growing bandwidth requirements in datacenters, the optical transmit and receive heads are being placed closer and closer to the board and the IC. But, designers also apply this technology to biosensors, medical diagnostics, and environmental monitoring. Regardless of the application, photonic ICs always need integration to electronic circuits and this results in unique challenges....

Publisher: Mentor Graphics

Mentor Graphics

A leader in software solutions for electroncs design, Mentor Graphics is the only EDA company with a total end-to-end solution for design though manufacturing.

Wilsonville, Oregon, USA

Design, Software Manufacturer

Multiple Methods for Applying Paste Flux or Solder Paste for BGA Rework

Mar 30, 2017 | Bob Wettermann, BEST Inc. MIT

There are multiple methods, each with its associated benefits for given applications, for printing either solder paste or paste flux for BGA rework. Each of these methods is best-suited for a given situation, board layout and skill level of operators performing the BGA rework. This discussion will layout the various methods and present the specific circumstances for which the specific technique is most wellsuited. In addition, the pluses and minuses for each of the approaches will be discussed in detail....

Publisher: BEST Inc.

BEST Inc.

BEST offers professional rework, repair and prototype builds of PCBs. Our experienced instructors teach professional soldering classes as we are an IPC certified training center.

Rolling Meadows, Illinois, USA

Repair/Rework, Soldering, IPC Standards Certification Center, Service Provider, Training Provider

Water Soluble Solder Paste, Wet Behind the Ears or Wave of the Future

Mar 22, 2017 | Tony Lentz

Water soluble lead-free solder paste is widely used in today’s SMT processes, but the industry is slowly moving away from water soluble solder pastes in favor of no-clean solder pastes. This shift in usage of solder paste is driven by an effort to eliminate the water wash process. Some components cannot tolerate water wash and elimination of water washing streamlines the SMT process. Despite this shift, certain applications lend themselves to the use of water soluble solder paste.

This paper details the research and development of a new water soluble lead-free solder paste which improves on the performance characteristics of existing technologies....

Publisher: FCT ASSEMBLY, INC.

FCT ASSEMBLY, INC.

With numerous facilities in the United States, we are one of the electronics industry's leading manufacturers of lead-free solder products, superior quality stencils, and precision cut parts.

Greeley, Colorado, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

Best Practices for RoHS Compliance in support of CE Marking

Mar 15, 2017 | Randy Flinders

In 2012, The European Directive on Reduction of Hazardous Substances was recast. The new version of the directive now requires products to be adequately validated as RoHS compliant in order to be eligible for CE marking and access to the EU market (...)

This paper starts by reviewing the evolution of the RoHS directive and how it has evolved. It then moves on to cover the requirements and scope of the directive, as well as which standards are used to demonstrate compliance, and how those standards must be referenced in internal company quality processes....

Publisher: GreenSoft Technology, Inc.

GreenSoft Technology, Inc.

GreenSoft Technology is a leading provider of environmental compliance content management tools, software and services for the global electronics industry for RoHS-2, REACH, Conflict Minerals and other regulations.

Pasadena, California, USA

Environmental Resources, Service Provider, Software Manufacturer

Screen-Printing Fabrication and Characterization of Stretchable Electronics

Mar 09, 2017 | Jari Suikkola, Toni Björninen, Mahmoud Mosallaei, Timo Kankkunen, Pekka Iso-Ketola, Leena Ukkonen, Jukka Vanhala & Matti Mäntysalo

This article focuses on the fabrication and characterization of stretchable interconnects for wearable electronics applications. Interconnects were screen-printed with a stretchable silver-polymer composite ink on 50-μm thick thermoplastic polyurethane. The initial sheet resistances of the manufactured interconnects were an average of 36.2 mΩ/◽, and half the manufactured samples withstood single strains of up to 74%. The strain proportionality of resistance is discussed, and a regression model is introduced. Cycling strain increased resistance. However, the resistances here were almost fully reversible, and this recovery was time-dependent. Normalized resistances to 10%, 15%, and 20% cyclic strains stabilized at 1.3, 1.4, and 1.7. We also tested the validity of our model for radio-frequency applications through characterization of a stretchable radio-frequency identification tag....

Publisher: Tampere University of Technology

Tampere University of Technology

TUT is Finland's second-largest university in engineering sciences located next to the Technology Centre Hermia, including a large Nokia research facility.

Tampere, Finland

School

Nanoelectromechanical Switches for Low-Power Digital Computing

Mar 02, 2017 | Alexis Peschot, Chuang Qian, Tsu-Jae King Liu

The need for more energy-efficient solid-state switches beyond complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) transistors has become a major concern as the power consumption of electronic integrated circuits (ICs) steadily increases with technology scaling. Nano-Electro-Mechanical (NEM) relays control current flow by nanometer-scale motion to make or break physical contact between electrodes, and offer advantages over transistors for low-power digital logic applications: virtually zero leakage current for negligible static power consumption; the ability to operate with very small voltage signals for low dynamic power consumption; and robustness against harsh environments such as extreme temperatures. Therefore, NEM logic switches (relays) have been investigated by several research groups during the past decade. Circuit simulations calibrated to experimental data indicate that scaled relay technology can overcome the energy-efficiency limit of CMOS technology.

This paper reviews recent progress toward this goal, providing an overview of the different relay designs and experimental results achieved by various research groups, as well as of relay-based IC design principles. Remaining challenges for realizing the promise of nano-mechanical computing, and ongoing efforts to address these, are discussed....

Publisher: EECS at University of California

EECS at University of California

The Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences (EECS) at UC Berkeley offers one of the strongest research and instructional programs in this field anywhere in the world.

Berkeley, California, USA

School

The Evolution of Surface Finishes in Mobile Phone Applications

Feb 28, 2017 | Claus Würtz Nielsen Nokia Mobile Phones R&D

During the last 5 years mobile phones and other portable consumer electronics have been extremely popular and spread all over the world in different climate zones in very high volumes. At the same time the mobile phone terminal for many people has become a necessity that is brought with them in any activity they practice. These changes in user behavior have heavily changed the impact on handheld terminals from moisture, sweat, corrosive atmospheres and mechanical drop. As a result of this the requirement to solder joint reliability, corrosion stability and wear resistance are heavily increasing to keep a high reliability of the terminal.

Immersion Ni/Au has been the overall dominant surface finish on Printed Wiring Boards (PWB's) for the last 10 years, but a paradigm shift to avoid use of this thin and porous surface finish is ongoing nowadays because it can’t address these challenges in a satisfactory way.

In today's handheld terminals, Organic Solder Preservative (OSP) has replaced Immersion Ni/Au on solder pads. Carbon surface finish for Key- and spring contact-pads, combined with the right concept design can make use of Immersion Ni/Au unnecessary in the near future. The result will be higher reliability with less expensive and simpler processes.

This paper will discuss the various considerations for choice of surface finish and results from the feasibility studies performed....

Publisher: Nokia Corporation

Nokia Corporation

Founded in 1865, NOKIA is a Finnish multinational communications and information technology company.

Espoo, Finland

Other

Best Practices for Collecting Product Material and Compliance Data

Feb 23, 2017 | PTC

Managing the environmental performance of products is an increasingly complicated challenge for manufacturers today. These companies face a complex tangle of requirements and mandates from regulators, consumers and customers to manage the toxicity, recycleability and overall environmental impact of their products. Not only have governments, business-to-business customers and consumers demonstrated a clear preference for better environmentally performing and "greener" brands, but investors are now pressuring manufacturers, as well. For example, the Dow Jones Sustainability Index identifies and tracks leading sustainability-driven companies around the world.

This paper focuses on the challenges companies face and the best practices they can employ when collecting substance, material and compliance data from their suppliers and supply chain....

Publisher: PTC

PTC

PTC is a global technology provider of the leading IoT and AR platform and field-proven solutions transform how companies create, operate, and service products.

Needham, Massachusetts, USA

Other

Component Level Reliability For High Temperature Power Computing With SAC305 And Alternative High Reliability Solders

Feb 16, 2017 | Thomas Sanders, Sivasubramanian Thirugnanasambandam and John Evans, Ph.D., Michael Bozack, Ph.D., Jeff Suhling, Ph.D. - Auburn University, Wayne Johnson, Ph.D. - Tennessee Tech University

This experiment considers the reliability of a variety of different electronic components and evaluates them on 0.200” power computing printed circuit boards with OSP. Single-sided assemblies were built separately for the Top-side and Bottom-side of the boards. This data is for boards on the FR4-06 substrate.

This paper was originally published by SMTA in the Proceedings of SMTA International....

Publisher: Auburn University

Auburn University

Auburn University is a comprehensive land-grant institution with primary missions including instruction, research, and extension/outreach.

Auburn, Alabama, USA

School

Can Age and Storage Conditions Affect the SIR Performance of a No-Clean Solder Paste Flux Residue?

Feb 09, 2017 | Eric Bastow

The SMT assembly world, especially within the commercial electronics realm, is dominated by no-clean solder paste technology. A solder paste flux residue that does not require removal is very attractive in a competitive world where every penny of assembly cost counts. One important aspect of the reliability of assembled devices is the nature of the no-clean solder paste flux residue. Most people in this field understand the importance of having a process that renders the solder paste flux residue as benign and inert as possible, thereby ensuring electrical reliability.

But, of all the factors that play into the electrical reliability of the solder paste flux residue, is there any impact made by the age of the solder paste and how it was stored? This paper uses J-STD-004B SIR (Surface Insulation Resistance) testing to examine this question....

Publisher: Indium Corporation

Indium Corporation

Solder pastes, solder preforms, solder spheres, soldering fluxes, electrically-conductive adhesives. All alloys: tin-lead, lead-free, indium alloys, and more.

Utica, New York, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

BGA Rework Process

Feb 01, 2017 | Bob Wettermann

BGA Rework Course encompasses the skills necessary to perform rework of electronic printed circuit boards to include PBGA and CBGA technologies. There should be 'one-stop' solution, that offers a wide range of ball grid array rework and repair services....

Publisher: BEST Inc.

BEST Inc.

BEST offers professional rework, repair and prototype builds of PCBs. Our experienced instructors teach professional soldering classes as we are an IPC certified training center.

Rolling Meadows, Illinois, USA

Repair/Rework, Soldering, IPC Standards Certification Center, Service Provider, Training Provider

HOW MULTI-WAVELENGTH LED LIGHT IMPROVE CURING QUALITY

Jan 31, 2017 | DPL Industri A/S Denmark

Compared with general Mercury Lamp, normal LED can only provide a very narrow band. See the left side figure, which compare the output of a multi-wavelength( 365nm-410nm) LED lamp with traditional mercury lamp. At the same wavelength 365nm,LED lamp can output much more energy than traditional mercury lamp, means LED lamp can provide more high energy output in UV-A range. DPL eAsycure LED curing system use the latest LED technology on LED chip combination to reach high Joule Energy (DOSIS Energy), so it can easily cure UV ink in UVA range instead of single wavelength LED ink. According to our client’s ink performance, DPL LED Curing system can setup different output energy at different wavelength. If you have any question,please contact with our service team at dpl@dpl.dk or visit our website: www.dpl.dk...

1 comments.

what is LED UV curing?

Jan 31, 2017 | DPL Industri A/S Denmark

DPL LED Easycure LED system is base on the latest LED curing technology, which combine with a high effective and smart construction ensure a stable and perfect curing quality for different types of coating, printing, bonding application. DPL LED curing system series is build up with length from 82mm to 2240mm. We also provide customer design service. FEATURE : High UV curing energy output: with our special construction of LED Chips, DPL LED curing system can reach 146w/cm, output energy up to 650mj/cm2 by 100m/min printing speed, Peak energy up to 26w/cm2. Long lifetime: with high effective water chill construction, DPL LED curing system can reach more than 20.000 hours by 100% Radiation. Suitable for LED or mercury UV ink: DPL LED curing system provide high Joule energy (DOSIS ENERGY) with wave length from 365-395nm. “Plus & Play” smart system: DPL LED Curing system is smart system with “plus &play” design, easy to operation and suitable to install in existing machine....

What Type of PCB Substrate Material Is Right for Your PCB?

Jan 24, 2017 | Dora Yang

Basic performance of PCB (Printed Circuit Board) depends on the performance of substrate material. In order to improve the performance of PCB, you have to increase the performance of PCB substrate material first. This article introduces how to chose PCB substrate material for your custom PCB project from multiple perspectives....

3 comments.

Publisher: PCBCart

PCBCart

PCBCart, a highly skilled PCB Fab, Parts Sourcing & Assembly services provider for global companies, fabricates 23k+ different PCB designs each year, and are committed on the quality & performance of every circuit board it printed

Hangzhou, China

Manufacturer of Bare PCBs, Manufacturer of Assembled PCBs, Drilling/Routing, Turnkey, Contract Manufacturer

Environmentally sound: Aqueous cleaning with minimum water consumption

Jan 23, 2017 | Connie Miede

"Water is not a problem of the future, but a key issue of our time for businesses: In the future, urgent water risks will increase in many areas of the world. A growing population, a changing consumer behavior and climate change will have an immediate impact on the availability and quality of water and thus build further pressure on governments, businesses and societies." (Quote from the summary of the 2014 WWF study "The imported risk. Germany's water risk in the age of globalization.")...

Publisher: Kolb Cleaning Technology USA LLC

Kolb Cleaning Technology USA LLC

The international full service manufacturer of systems, detergents, equipment and process design for the cleaning in electronics production.

Longmont, Colorado, USA

Cleaning

Rigid-Flex PCB Right the First Time - Without Paper Dolls

Jan 19, 2017 | Benjamin Jordan

The biggest problem with designing rigid-flex hybrid PCBs is making sure everything will fold in the right way, while maintaining good flex-circuit stability and lifespan. The next big problem to solve is the conveyance of the design to a fabricator who will clearly understand the design intent and therefore produce exactly what the designer/engineer intended.

Rigid-Flex circuit boards require additional cutting and lamination stages, and more exotic materials in manufacturing and therefore the cost of re-spins and failures are very much higher than traditional rigid boards. To reduce the risk and costs associated with rigid-flex design and prototyping, it is desirable to model the flexible parts of the circuit in 3D CAD to ensure correct form and fit. In addition it is necessary to provide absolutely clear documentation for manufacturing to the fabrication and assembly houses....

Publisher: Altium

Altium

Altium provides electronics design solutions that help designers create the next generation of electronic products.

La Jolla, California, USA

Software Manufacturer

Effect of Alloy and Flux System on High Reliability Automotive Applications

Jan 05, 2017 | Mitch Holtzer, Steve Brown - Alpha, Marcus Reichenberger - Technische Hochschule Nürnberg

The July 2006 implementation of ROHS exempted automotive applications from converting to lead free technology. Nine years later, all major OEM and Tier 1 automotive manufacturers have converted or are in the process of converting to lead free circuit assembly processing. Starting with SAC (SnAgCu) alloys as a baseline for lead free soldering, in the last years several specific alloys were developed in order to improve resistance to high temperature creep, vibration survival and the ability to withstand thermal cycling and thermal shock.

The paper compares three different solder alloys and two flux chemistries in terms of void formation and mechanical / thermal fatigue properties. Void content and reliability data of the alloys will be presented and discussed in relation to the acceptance criteria of a Tier 1 /OEM automotive supplier. As a result, a ranking list will be presented considering the combined performance of the alloys. In order to analyze the void formation and mechanical behavior of different solder alloys and flux chemistry combinations, statistical methods are used....

Publisher: Alpha

Alpha

A materials supplier to the electronics industry. Our breadth of products includes Solder Paste, Solder Preforms, Stencils, Liquid Soldering Flux, Soldering Alloys, Cored Wire, Adhesives, Cleaners and Sinter Technologies

Altoona, Pennsylvania, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

Partially-Activated Flux Residue Impacts on Electronic Assembly Reliabilities

Dec 29, 2016 | Yanrong Shi, Ph.D., Kyle Loomis, Jennifer Allen, Bruno Tolla, Ph.D.

The reliabilities of the flux residue of electronic assemblies and semiconductor packages are attracting more and more attention with the adoption of no-clean fluxes by majority of the industry. In recent years, the concern of "partially activated" flux residue and their influence on reliability have been significantly raised due to the miniaturization along with high density design trend, selective soldering process adoption, and the expanded use of pallets in wave soldering process. When flux residue becomes trapped under low stand-off devices, pallets or unsoldered areas (e.g. selective process), it may contain unevaporated solvent, "live" activators and metal complex intermediates with different chemical composition and concentration levels depending on the thermal profiles. These partially-activated residues can directly impact the corrosion, surface insulation and electrochemical migration of the final assembly.

In this study, a few application tests were developed internally to understand this issue. Two traditional liquid flux and two newly developed fluxes were selected to build up the basic models. The preliminary results also provide a scientific approach to design highly reliable products with the goal to minimize the reliability risk for the complex PCB designs and assembly processes.

This paper was originally published by SMTA in the Proceedings of SMTA International

...

Publisher: Kester

Kester

A leading global supplier of assembly materials to the electronic assembly, component and microelectronic marketplaces.

Itasca, Illinois, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

Characterization, Prevention and Removal of Particulate Matter on Printed Circuit Boards

Dec 22, 2016 | Prabjit Singh, Patrick Ruch, Sarmenio Saliba - IBM Corporation, Christopher Muller - Purafil Inc.

Particulate matter contamination is known to become wet and therefore ionically conductive and corrosive if the humidity in the environment rises above the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) of the particulate matter. In wet condition, particulate matter can electrically bridge closely spaced features on printed circuit boards (PCBs), leading to their electrical failure. (...)

The objective of this paper is to develop and describe a practical, routine means of measuring the DRH of minute quantities of particulate matter (1 mg or less) found on PCBs....

Publisher: IBM Corporation

IBM Corporation

International Business Machines Corporation is a multinational technology. IBM manufactures computer hardware and software, offers infrastructure, hosting and consulting services.

Armonk, New York, USA

Other, Software Manufacturer

Research on Decision-making of Green Reverse Logistics in Enterprises: A Case Study on Electronic Products Manufacturers from the Perspective of South Africa

Dec 21, 2016 | Syed Abdul Rehman Khan

Abstract: In recent years, the environmental problems caused by the traditional implementation of reverse logistics enterprises have become more and more serious. Especially for the enterprises of electronic products, the heavy metal pollution problems caused by the waste of electronic products have made more and more enterprises and researchers begin to seek a green approach of reverse logistics. Based on the idea of “Cradle to Cradle” industry model, by the use of relevant theory of activity-based costing and quality management theory, the conceptual model of decision-making of reverse logistics activities for the electronic products manufacturing enterprises will be established; to decrease the influence on environment when implementing reverse logistics activities....

A Comparison of Mulpin VS Embedded Passive Technology

Dec 15, 2016 | Mulpin

Why embed the components?

Embedded components have advantages over SMD because they are naturally screened from high frequency radio emissions (RFI or EMI). They can also be smaller than current SMD components. Both embedded and Mulpin components have these advantages, but Mulpin components have many more advantages and none of the disadvantages which can be seen below....

Publisher: Mulpin Research Laboratories

Mulpin Research Laboratories

The Mulpin concept is to embed components, both active and passive, into multi-layered Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs).

Perth, Australia

Manufacturer of Components

Understanding the Effect of Process Changes and Flux Chemistry on Mid-Chip Solder Balling

Nov 30, 2016 | Katherine Wilkerson, Ian J. Wilding, Michael Carter, Daniel Buckland

Mid-chip solder balling is a defect typically associated with solder paste exhibiting poor hot slump and/or insufficient wetting during the reflow soldering process, resulting in paste flowing under the component or onto the solder resist. Once molten, this solder is compressed and forced to the side of the component, causing mid-chip solder balling.

This paper documents the experimental work performed to further understand the impact on mid-chip solder balling from both the manufacturing process and the flux chemistry....

Publisher: Henkel Electronic Materials

Henkel Electronic Materials

Henkel is a manufacturer of materials for PCB and component assembly. The materials include Loctite adhesives, Multicore soldering products, Hysol encaps and underfills, and Power Devices thermal phase change pads.

Irvine, California, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material

Review of Interconnect Stress Testing Protocols and Their Effectiveness in Screening Microvias

Nov 30, 2016 | Edward Arthur; Raytheon Company, Charles Busa, Wade Goldman P.E., Alisa Grubbs; The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc.

The use of microvias in Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) for military hardware is increasing as technology drives us toward smaller pitches and denser circuitry. Along with the changes in technology, the industry has changed and captive manufacturing lines are few and far between. As PCBs get more complicated, the testing we perform to verify the material was manufactured to our requirements before they are used in an assembly needs to be reviewed to ensure that it is sufficient for the technology and meets industry needs to better screen for long-term reliability. The Interconnect Stress Testing (IST) protocol currently used to identify manufacturing issues in plated through holes, blind, or buried vias are not necessarily sufficient to identify problems with microvias. There is a need to review the current IST protocol to determine if it is adequate for finding bad microvias or if there is a more reliable test that will screen out manufacturing inconsistencies.

The objective of this research is to analyze a large population of PCB IST coupons to determine if there is a more effective IST test to find less reliable microvias in electrically passing PCB product and to screen for manufacturing deficiencies. The proposed IST test procedure will be supported with visual inspection of corresponding microvia cross sections and Printed Wiring Assembly (PWA) acceptance test results. The proposed screening will be shown to only slightly affect PCB yield while showing a large benefit to screening before PCBs are used in an assembly....

1 comments.

Publisher: Raytheon

Raytheon

The Raytheon Company is a major American defense contractor and industrial corporation with core manufacturing concentrations in weapons and military and commercial electronics.

Waltham, Massachusetts, USA

Other

Miniaturizing IoT Designs

Nov 23, 2016 | Tom Nordman, Pasi Rahikkala

As we wirelessly connect more and more devices to the Internet, electronics engineers face several challenges, including how to package a radio transmitter into their existing device real estate and how to make increasingly smaller devices. They’re also striving to meet consumer demand for Internet of Things (IoT) products that are ergonomically easy to use and unobtrusive to the environment.

This whitepaper explores the challenges that come with designing connected devices into increasingly smaller products, specifically antenna integration, and how system-inpackage modules can help....

Publisher: Silicon Labs

Silicon Labs

Silicon Labs is a leading provider of silicon, software and tools for the Internet of Things, Internet infrastructure, industrial automation, consumer and automotive markets.

Austin, Texas, USA

Manufacturer of Components

How Mitigation Techniques Affect Reliability Results for BGAs

Nov 17, 2016 | Greg Caswell, Melissa Keener

Since 2006 RoHS requirements have required lead free solders to take the place of tin-lead solders in electronics. The problem is that in some environments the lead free solders are less reliable than the older tin-lead solders. One of the ways to solve this problem is to corner stake, edge bond or underfill the components. When considering what mitigation technique and material to use, the operating conditions must be characterized. The temperature range is important when selecting a material to use since the glass transition temperature (Tg) and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) are important properties. If improperly chosen, the mitigation material can cause more failures than an unmitigated component....

Publisher: DfR Solutions

DfR Solutions

DfR Solutions has world-renowned expertise in applying the science of Reliability Physics to electrical and electronics technologies, and is a leading provider of quality, reliability, and durability (QRD) research and consulting for the electronics industry.

College Park, Maryland, USA

Service Provider

A High Thermal Conductive Solderable Adhesive

Nov 17, 2016 | Dr. Mary Liu and Dr Wusheng Yin

With increasing LED development and production, thermal issues are becoming more and more important for LED devices, particularly true for high power LED and also for other high power devices. In order to dissipate the heat from the device efficiently, Au80Sn20 alloy is being used in the industry now. However there are a few drawbacks for Au80Sn20 process: (1) higher soldering temperature, usually higher than 320°C; (2) low process yield; (3) too expensive. In order to overcome the shortcomings of Au80Sn20 process, YINCAE Advanced Materials, LLC has invented a new solderable adhesive – TM 230. Solderable adhesives are epoxy based silver adhesives. During the die attach reflow process, the solder material on silver can solder silver together, and die with pad together. After soldering, epoxy can encapsulate the soldered interface, so that the thermal conductivity can be as high as 58 W/mk. In comparison to Au80Sn20 reflow process, the solderable adhesive has the following advantages: (1) low process temperature – reflow peak temperature of 230°C; (2) high process yield – mass reflow process instead of thermal compression bonding process; (3) low cost ownership. In this paper we are going to present the die attach process of solderable adhesive and the reliability test. After 1000 h lighting of LED, it has been found that there is almost no decay in the light intensity by using solderable adhesive – TM 230. ...

Publisher: YINCAE Advanced Materials, LLC.

YINCAE Advanced Materials, LLC.

Yincae Advanced Materials, LLC is a developer, manufacturer, and supplier of high performance coatings, adhesives, electronic and optoelectronic materials.

Albany, New York, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Components/Substrates, Contract Manufacturer

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StikNPeel™ Rework Stencils

Selective Solder Wetted Nozzles