Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Papers and articles related to SMT, PCB & EMS industry.


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1261 SMT / PCB Assembly Related Technical Articles

Operation of a Vacuum Reflow Oven with Void Reduction Data

Apr 21, 2021 | Fred Dimock

Voids affect the thermal characteristics and mechanical properties of a solder joint, thereby affecting the reliability of the solder interconnect. The automotive sector in particular is requiring the mitigation of solder voids in various electronic control modules to the minimum possible level. Earlier research efforts performed to decrease voids involved varying the reflow profile, paste deposit, paste alloy composition, stencil aperture, and thickness....

Publisher: BTU International

BTU International

Global supplier of advanced thermal processing equipment and processes to the electronics assembly market.

North Billerica, Massachusetts, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment

Effect Of Vacuum Reflow On Solder Joint Voiding In Bumped Components

Apr 21, 2021 | Arvind Srinivasan Karthikeyan, Sa'd Hamasha, Michael Meilunas, Fred Dimock

Voids affect the thermal characteristics and mechanical properties of a solder joint, thereby affecting the reliability of the solder interconnect. The automotive sector in particular is requiring the mitigation of solder voids in various electronic control modules to the minimum possible level. Earlier research efforts performed to decrease voids involved varying the reflow profile, paste deposit, paste alloy composition, stencil aperture, and thickness. Due to the various advantages they offer, the use of Ball Grid Array packages is common across all industry sectors. They are also prone to process voiding issues. This study was performed to determine if vacuum assisted reflow process can help alleviate the voids in area array solder joints. Test parameters in this study largely focused on vacuum pressure level and vacuum dwell time....

Publisher: Auburn University

Auburn University

Auburn University is a public land-grant research university in Auburn, Alabama. With more than 24,600 undergraduate students and a total enrollment of more than 30,000 with 1,330 faculty members, Auburn is the second largest ...

Auburn University, Alabama, USA

School

Air purification and occupational health & safety in electronics production

Apr 16, 2021 | ULT

The overall process of manufacturing electronics assemblies is characterized by a number of very different procedures. Along the production chain, technologies for cutting, assembling, soldering, bonding, gluing, marking, potting, etc. are used, all of them have one thing in common: They produce airborne pollutants, some of which can have a significant impact on employees, manufacturing equipment and products - and for this reason need to be removed effectively and efficiently....

Publisher: ULT Canada Sales Incorporated

ULT Canada Sales Incorporated

ULT is a vendor of efficient fume extraction solutions for air purification. The company's systems are utilized for the removal of laser fumes, soldering fumes, odors, vapors, gases, dusts etc. in electronics production.

Maple Ridge, British Columbia, Canada

Cleaning, Environmental Resources, OEM

Detection of PCB Soldering Defects using Template Based Image Processing Method

Apr 15, 2021 | Şaban Öztürk, Bayram Akdemir

In this study, a predefined template-based image processing system is proposed to automatically detect of PCB soldering defects that negatively affect circuit operation. The proposed system consists of a scaled inspection structure, a camera, an image processing algorithm merged with Fuzzy and template guided inspection process. The prototype is produced using a plastic material, depending on the focal length of the camera and the PCB size. Image processing step comprises two steps. Firstly, solder joints are determined and boxed using Fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm....

Publisher: Selcuk University

Selcuk University

Selçuk University started education in the academic year of 1976-1977 with two faculties. Faculty of Science and Faculty of Literature, 7 departments, 327 students and 2 permanent lecturers. Selçuk University has significantly ...

Konya, Turkey

School

Automated Inspection Of PCB Components Using A Genetic Algorithm Template-Matching Approach

Apr 15, 2021 | A. J. Crispin & V. Rankov

Automated inspection of surface mount PCB boards is a requirement to assure quality and to reduce manufacturing scrap costs and rework. This paper investigates methodologies for locating and identifying multiple objects in images used for surface mount device inspection. One of the main challenges for surface mount device inspection is component placement inspection....

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

Springer-Verlag

Springer is a leading global scientific, technical and medical portfolio, providing researchers in academia, scientific institutions and corporate R&D departments with quality content through innovative information, products ...

LONDON, United Kingdom

Service Provider

Automatic Visual Inspection of Printed Circuit Board for Defect Detection and Classification

Apr 15, 2021 | Vikas Chaudhary, Ishan R. Dave and Kishor P. Upla

Inspection of printed circuit board (PCB) has been a crucial process in the electronic manufacturing industry to guarantee product quality & reliability, cut manufacturing cost and to increase production. The PCB inspection involves detection of defects in the PCB and classification of those defects in order to identify the roots of defects. In this paper, all 14 types of defects are detected and are classified in all possible classes ......

Publisher: S. V. National Institute of Technology

S. V. National Institute of Technology

Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology Surat, is a public technical university established by the Parliament of India in 1961. It is one of 31 National Institutes of Technology in India recognized by the Government ..

Surat, Gujarat, India

School

Investigation of Factors That Influence Creep Corrosion

Apr 08, 2021 | Cherie Chen

Understand the sensitivities of the identified factors to Creep Corrosion. Correlate experimental test conditions to environment classification standards....

Publisher: iNEMI (International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative)

iNEMI (International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative)

iNEMI is an industry-led consortium focused on identifying and closing technology gaps, which includes the development and integration of the electronics industry supply infrastructure.

Herndon, Virginia, USA

Qualification Test Development for Creep Corrosion

Apr 08, 2021 | Prabjit Singh Simon Lee

Creep corrosion is not a new phenomenon, it has become more prevalent since the enactment of the European Union's Restriction of Hazardous Substance (RoHS) Directive on 1 July 2006. The directive bans the use of lead and other hazardous substances in products (where lead-based surface finishes offered excellent corrosion resistance). The higher melting temperatures of the lead-free solders and their poor wetting of copper metallization on PCBs forced changes to PCB laminates, surface finishes and processing temperature-time profiles. As a result, printed circuit boards might have higher risk of creep corrosion....

Publisher: iNEMI (International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative)

iNEMI (International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative)

iNEMI is an industry-led consortium focused on identifying and closing technology gaps, which includes the development and integration of the electronics industry supply infrastructure.

Herndon, Virginia, USA

Creep Corrosion of PWB Final Finishes: Its Cause and Prevention

Apr 08, 2021 | C. Xu, J. Smetana, J. Franey, G. Guerra, D. Fleming, W. Reents,

As the electronic industry moves to lead-free assembly and finer-pitch circuits, widely used printed wiring board (PWB) finish, SnPb HASL, has been replaced with lead-free and coplanar PWB finishes such as OSP, ImAg, ENIG, and ImSn. While SnPb HASL offers excellent corrosion protection of the underlying copper due to its thick coating and inherent corrosion resistance, the lead-free board finishes provide reduced corrosion protection to the underlying copper due to their very thin coating. For ImAg, the coating material itself can also corrode in more aggressive environments. This is an issue for products deployed in environments with high levels of sulfur containing pollutants encountered in the current global market. In those corrosive environments, creep corrosion has been observed and led to product failures in very short service life (1-5 years). Creep corrosion failures within one year of product deployment have also been reported. This has prompted an industry-wide effort to understand creep corrosion...

Publisher: Alcatel-Lucent

Alcatel-Lucent

Often referred to as "The Idea Factory" or "The Crown Jewel," Nokia Bell Labs has an unparalleled history of innovation output. Researchers at Nokia Bell Labs have been behind or involved in nearly every critical technological mil

New Providence, New Jersey, USA

Research Institute / Laboratory

Microbial Nanocellulose Printed Circuit Boards for Medical Sensing

Apr 01, 2021 | Jonathan D. Yuen, Lisa C. Shriver-Lake, Scott A. Walper, Daniel Zabetakis, Joyce C. Breger and David A. Stenger

We demonstrate the viability of using ultra-thin sheets of microbially grown nanocellulose to build functional medical sensors. Microbially grown nanocellulose is an interesting alternative to plastics, as it is hydrophilic, biocompatible, porous, and hydrogen bonding, thereby allowing the potential development of new application routes. Exploiting...

Publisher: U.S. Naval Research Laboratory

U.S. Naval Research Laboratory

The U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is the Department of the Navy's corporate laboratory, and it reports to the Chief of Naval Research. As the corporate laboratory of the Navy, NRL is the principal in-house component in the

Washington,, District of Columbia, USA

Research Institute / Laboratory

Recommendations for Board Assembly of Infineon Thin Small Discrete Packages without Leads

Apr 01, 2021 | Infineon Technologies AG

This document provides information about the Surface Mount Technology (SMT) board assembly of Infineon Thin Small Non-leaded Packages (TSNP). The specific dimensions of the leadframe based inner setup depend on the size of the chip and the type of bonding. The field of application ranges from linear voltage regulators for weight-limited applications such as cellular phones and digital cameras to linear voltage regulators for the automotive sector....

Publisher: Infineon Technologies AG

Infineon Technologies AG

Infineon Technologies AG is a world leader in semiconductor solutions that make life easier, safer and greener. Microelectronics from Infineon are the key to a better future. In the 2020 fiscal year (ending 30 September), Infineon

Neubiberg, Germany

Manufacturer of Components

Study on Real-Time Test Script in Automated Test Equipment

Mar 24, 2021 | Chongwu Jiang, Bin Liu, Yongfeng Yin, Chang Liu

In this article we propose a generic test script for real=time embedded software system testing, which has been applied to ATE (Automated Test Equipment). After a summary of the theory about embedded software automated test based on test script, the design philosophy and implementation details are described. We have chosen an ATE and integrated python interpreter into it....

Publisher: Beihang University

Beihang University

Beihang University is designated as an eminent key university ( literally a "first-rate university" of type-A[3] ) by China's Ministry of Education Class A . It was one of China's key universities subsidized by "Project 985" fundi

Beijing, China

Research Institute / Laboratory

Test Solution for Heatsinks in Power Electronics Applications

Mar 24, 2021 | Davide Piumatti, Stefano Borlo, Matteo Vincenzo Quitadamo, Matteo Sonza Reorda , Eric Giacomo Armando and Franco Fiori

Power electronics technology is widely used in several areas, such as in the railways, automotive, electric vehicles, and renewable energy sectors. Some of these applications are safety critical, e.g., in the automotive domain. The heat produced by power devices must be efficiently dissipated to allow them to work within their operational thermal limits. Moreover ......

Publisher: Politecnico di Torino

Politecnico di Torino

To educate, discover and innovate to impact on a rapidly changing society

Torino TO, Italy

Research Institute / Laboratory

Design Guidelines For In-Circuit Testability

Mar 24, 2021 | JJS Manufacturing

In-circuit test (ICT) has remained one of the most popular and cost-effective test methods for medium and high volume printed circuit board assembly (PCBA) for many years. This is due to its component-level fault diagnosis capability- and its speed....

Publisher: JJS Manufacturing

JJS Manufacturing

JJS Manufacturing is an Electronics Manufacturing Services (EMS) partner, offering low risk, end-to-end procurement, manufacture and supply chain solutions. From our sophisticated manufacturing facilities in both Lutterworth (UK)

Lutterworth, United Kingdom

Contract Manufacturer

Analyzing the Impact of X-ray Tomography on the Reliability of Integrated Circuits

Mar 18, 2021 | Halit Dogan, Md Mahbub Alam, Navid Asadizanjani, Sina Shahbazmohamadi, Domenic Forte and Mark Tehranipoor

X-ray tomography is a promising technique that can provide micron level, internal structure, and three dimensional (3D) information of an integrated circuit (IC) component without the need for serial sectioning or decapsulation. This is especially useful for counterfeit IC detection as demonstrated by recent work. Although the components remain physically intact during tomography, the effect of radiation on the electrical functionality is not yet fully investigated. In this paper we analyze the impact of X-ray tomography on the reliability of ICs with different fabrication technologies....

Publisher: University of Connecticut

University of Connecticut

The University of Connecticut is a public land-grant research university in Storrs, Connecticut. It was founded in 1881. The primary 4,400-acre campus is in Storrs, Connecticut, approximately a half hour's drive from Hartford and

Storrs, Connecticut, USA

School

Using X-Ray Systems To Detect Counterfeit And Reworked Electronic Components

Mar 18, 2021 | Art Ogg

Much has been said and written about the accuracy of visual attribute inspections of potentially counterfeit components. The techniques and procedures being used to inspect counterfeit and reworked electronic components in the open marketplace can be quite effective in most cases....

Publisher: World Micro

World Micro

World Micro is a leading franchised distributor of electronic parts and components. Established in 1994, World Micro takes pride in providing superior service and world class support that our customers expect and deserve.

Roswell, Georgia, USA

Component Packaging

Latent short circuit failure in high-rel PCBs caused by lack of cleanliness of PCB processes and base materials

Mar 10, 2021 | Stan Heltzel

Latent short circuit failures have been observed during testing of Printed Circuit Boards (PCB) for power distribution of spacecraft of the European Space Agency. Root cause analysis indicates that foreign fibers may have contaminated the PCB laminate. These fibers can provide a pathway for electromigration if they bridge the clearance between nets of different potential in the presence of humidity attracted by the hygroscopic laminate resin. PCB manufacturers report poor yield caused by contamination embedded in laminate. Inspections show ......

Publisher: European Space Agency

European Space Agency

The European Space Agency is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space. Established in 1975 and headquartered in Paris, ESA has a worldwide staff of about 2,200 in 2018 and an annu

75345 Paris CEDEX 7, France

Research Institute / Laboratory

Impact of Dust on Printed Circuit Assembly Reliability

Mar 10, 2021 | Bo Song, Michael H. Azarian and Michael G. Pecht

Atmospheric dust consists of solids suspended in air. Dust is well known for its complex nature. It normally includes inorganic mineral materials, water soluble salts, organic materials, and a small amount of water. The impact of dust on the reliability of printed circuit board assemblies (PCBAs) is ever-growing, driven by the miniaturization of technology and the increasing un-controlled operating conditions with more dust exposure in telecom and information industries....

Publisher: CALCE Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering

CALCE Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering

The largest electronic products research center focused on electronics reliability, is dedicated to providing a knowledge and resource base to support the development of competitive electronic components, products and systems.

College Park, Maryland, USA

Service Provider, Training Provider

MPPE/SEBS Composites with Low Dielectric Loss for High-Frequency Copper Clad Laminates Applications

Mar 04, 2021 | Jianming Guo, Hao Wang, Caixia Zhang, Qilong Zhang, and Hui Yang

Copper clad laminates (CCLs) with low dissipation factor (Df) are urgently needed in the fields of high-frequency communications devices. A novel resin matrix of modified poly (2,6-dimethyl-1,4- phenylene ether) (MPPE) and styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene (SEBS) was employed in the fabrication of high-frequency copper clad laminates (CCLs). The composites were reinforced by E-glass fabrics, which were modified with phenyltriethoxysilane (PhTES). The composite laminates obtained exhibited impressive dielectric loss of 0.0027 at 10 GHz when the weight ratio of MPPE to SEBS was 5:1....

Publisher: Zhejiang University

Zhejiang University

Zhejiang University, also colloquially referred to as Zheda, is an elite C9 League university located in Hangzhou, the capital of Zhejiang province. Founded in 1897, Zhejiang University is one of China's oldest, most selective, an

Zhejiang, China

School

Progressive Failure Analysis of Laminates with Embedded Wrinkle Defects Based on an Elastoplastic Damage Model

Mar 04, 2021 | Zhi Hua Ning, Guan Liang Huo, Ren Huai Liu, Wei Lin Wu and Jia Ming Xie

Out-of-plane wrinkling has a significant influence on the mechanical performance of composite laminates. Numerical simulations were conducted to investigate the progressive failure behavior of fiber-reinforced composite laminates with out-of-plane wrinkle defects subjected to axial compression. To describe the material degradation, a three-dimensional elastoplastic damage model with four damage modes (i.e., fiber tensile failure, matrix failure, fiber kinking/splitting, and delamination) was developed based on the LaRC05 criterion. To improve the computational efficiency in searching for the fracture angle in the matrix failure analysis, a high-efficiency and robust modified algorithm that combines the golden section search method with an inverse interpolation based on an existing study is proposed....

Publisher: Jinan University

Jinan University

Jinan University is a public research university based in Tianhe District, Guangzhou city, Guangdong province, China. It is one of the oldest universities established in China, tracing back to the Qing dynasty.

Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China

School

Fracture Toughness Analysis of Epoxy-Recycled Rubber-Based Composite Reinforced with Graphene Nanoplatelets for Structural Applications in Automotive and Aeronautics

Feb 25, 2021 | Alaeddin Burak Irez, Emin Bayraktar and Ibrahim Miskioglu

This study proposes a new design of lightweight and cost-ecient composite materials for the aeronautic industry utilizing recycled fresh scrap rubber, epoxy resin, and graphene nanoplatelets (GnPs). After manufacturing the composites, their bending strength and fracture characteristics were investigated by three-point bending (3PB) tests. Halpin–Tsai homogenization adapted to composites containing GnPs was used to estimate the moduli of the composites, and satisfactory agreement with the 3PB test results was observed....

Publisher: Université Paris-Saclay

Université Paris-Saclay

LMT-Cachan, founded in 1975, is a joint research unit common to ENS Paris-Saclay and the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS, INSIS-Institute for Engineering and Systems Sciences).

91190 Gif-sur-Yvette, France

Research Institute / Laboratory

Humitector™ Type 2 Non-Reversible Humidity Indicator Cards from Clariant help assure the integrity of moisture-sensitive surface-mount devices

Feb 20, 2021 | Clariant

Customers must be able to rely on accurate humidity indication as an assurance of SMD quality and fitness for processing and use. Without it, they might accept SMDs from suppliers that have already been irreparably damaged by moisture during storage or transit. Or, they might approve for processing SMDs that have been improperly or insufficiently heat-dried. Beyond the processing questions, there are financial questions: Where did the dry pack problems originate and who--supplier, customer, shipper--is financially responsible for the damaged SMDs? In response, Clariant, the originator of the color change humidity indicator card, and a member of the JEDEC's Subcommittee 14.1, "Reliability and Test Methods for Packaged Devices," created a new "non-reversible" halogen and cobalt dichloride free humidity indicator card. This HIC combines two reversible indicators (5% and 10%) with a new non-reversible (60% RH) indicator spot. (Figure 1) The 5% and 10% reversible spots work the way similar indicators do: they change color from blue (dry), to lavender, to pink (wet) to indicate humidity exposure at the indicated levels. If humidity levels drop, they will gradually revert back to blue....

Publisher: Clariant Cargo & Device Protection

Clariant Cargo & Device Protection

Clariant Cargo & Device Protection offers a complete portfolio of desiccants and humidity indicator cards for use in dry packing.

Belen, New Mexico, USA

Other, Component Packaging

Electrochemical Sensors For Nitrogen Species: A Review

Feb 17, 2021 | Heejeong Ryua, Dorian Thompson, Yuankai Huang, BaikunLi, Yu Leia

This review provides an overview of electrochemical sensors for nitrogen species, especially, ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite. Due to the extensive anthropogenic activities, the concentration of nitrogen species has been dramatically increased in the environment. In particular, fertilizers containing ammonium and nitrate have been extensively used in agriculture where as nitrite-included additives or preservatives have been used in food industry. Since excessive nitrogen species have an adverse effect to environment and human health such as eutrophication and methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome), efforts have been made to develop efficient monitoring methods. On that account, the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for nitrate and nitrite to be 10mg/L nitrate-N and 1mg/L nitrite-N in drinking water, respectively. Typical analytical methods for nitrogen species are chromatography or spectrometry. However, these methods require expensive instrumentations, skilled operator, and considerable sample pretreatment and analysis time. As an alternative approach, electrochemical sensors have been explored to monitor nitrogen species owing to its simplicity, superior sensitivity, versatility, rapidity, field applicability, and selectivity. In this review, electrochemical based detection methods for nitrogen species especially ammonium, nitrate and nitrite are systematically discussed, including the fundamentals of electrochemical techniques, sensing mechanisms, and the performance of each sensor. doi.org/10.1016/j.snr.2020.100022...

Publisher: University of Connecticut

University of Connecticut

The University of Connecticut is a public land-grant research university in Storrs, Connecticut. It was founded in 1881. The primary 4,400-acre campus is in Storrs, Connecticut, approximately a half hour's drive from Hartford and

Storrs, Connecticut, USA

School

Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Technology for Electrochemical Sensors and Sensing Platforms

Feb 17, 2021 | Hamed Shamkhalichenar, Collin J. Bueche and Jin-Woo Choi

The development of various biosensors has revolutionized the healthcare industry by providing rapid and reliable detection capability. Printed circuit board (PCB) technology has a well-established industry widely available around the world. In addition to electronics, this technology has been utilized to fabricate electrical parts, including electrodes for different biological and chemical sensors. High reproducibility achieved through long-lasting standard processes and low-cost resulting from an abundance of competitive manufacturing services makes this fabrication method a prime candidate for patterning electrodes and electrical parts of biosensors. The adoption of this approach in the fabrication of sensing platforms facilitates the integration of electronics and microfluidics with biosensors. In this review paper, the underlying principles and advances of printed board circuit technology are discussed. In addition, an overview of recent advancements in the development of PCB-based biosensors is provided. Finally, the challenges and outlook of PCB-based sensors are elaborated. doi:10.3390/bios10110159...

Publisher: Louisiana State University

Louisiana State University

LSU is the flagship university for Louisiana, supporting land, sea and space grant research.

Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA

School

Autonomous Vehicle Implementation Predictions - Implications for Transport Planning

Feb 11, 2021 | Todd Litman

This report explores the impacts of autonomous (also called self-driving, driverless or robotic) vehicles, and their implications for transportation planning. It investigates how quickly such vehicles are likely to develop and be deployed based on experience with previous vehicle technologies; their likely benefits and ......

Publisher: Victoria Transport Policy Institute

Victoria Transport Policy Institute

The Victoria Transport Policy Institute is an independent research organization dedicated to developing innovative and practical solutions to transportation problems. We provide a variety of resources available free at this ...

Victoria, British Columbia, Canada

Research Institute / Laboratory

2020 AUTONOMOUS VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY REPORT

Feb 11, 2021 | How this report came to be: a collaborative effort - Bram Geenen Editor-In-Chief

Motorized transportation has changed the way we live. Autonomous vehicles are about to do so once more. This evolution of our transport - from horses and carriages, to cars, to driverless vehicles, - has been driven by both technical innovation and socioeconomic factors. In this report we focus on the technological aspect....

Publisher: Wevolver

Wevolver

At Wevolver we want to empower people to create and innovate by providing access to engineering knowledge. Humans need innovation to survive and thrive. Developing relevant technologies and creating the best possible solutions ...

Chorley, United Kingdom

Research Institute / Laboratory

2020 AUTONOMOUS VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY REPORT

Feb 11, 2021 | How this report came to be: a collaborative effort - Bram Geenen Editor-In-Chief

Motorized transportation has changed the way we live. Autonomous vehicles are about to do so once more. This evolution of our transport - from horses and carriages, to cars, to driverless vehicles, - has been driven by both technical innovation and socioeconomic factors. In this report we focus on the technological aspect....

Publisher: Wevolver

Wevolver

At Wevolver we want to empower people to create and innovate by providing access to engineering knowledge. Humans need innovation to survive and thrive. Developing relevant technologies and creating the best possible solutions ...

Chorley, United Kingdom

Research Institute / Laboratory

Recycling Waste Circuit Board Efficiently and Environmentally Friendly through Small-Molecule Assisted Dissolution

Feb 04, 2021 | Zhiqiang Chen, Meng Yang, Qian Shi, Xiao Kuang, H. Jerry Qi & Tiejun Wang

With the increasing amount of electronic waste (e-waste) generated globally, it is an enormous challenge to recycle printed circuit boards (PCBs) efficiently and environmentally friendly. However, conventional recycling technologies have low efficiency and require tough treatment such as high temperature (>200 °C) and high pressure. ... doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-54045-w....

Publisher: National Natural Science Foundation of China

National Natural Science Foundation of China

The National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) was established on February 14, 1986. Upon its establishment, NSFC was an institution directly under the jurisdiction of the State Council, tasked with the administration ...

Beijing, China

Research Institute / Laboratory

Closed‑Loop Recycling of Copper from Waste Printed Circuit Boards Using Bioleaching and Electrowinning Processes

Feb 04, 2021 | Mahsa Baniasadi· John E. Graves · Daniel A. Ray5 · Angélique Lindamulage De Silva · Derek Renshaw · Sebastien Farnaud

In the present study, a model of closed-loop recycling of copper from PCBs is demonstrated, which involves the sequential application of bioleaching and electrowinning to selectively extract copper. This approach is proposed as part of the solution to resolve the challenging ... doi.org/10.1007/s12649-020-01128-9...

Publisher: Waste and Biomass Valorization

Waste and Biomass Valorization

Springer Publishing is an award-winning publisher of healthcare and behavioral sciences content, featuring books, apps, journals, and digital products. With an acute understanding of how educators teach, how practitioners work ...

6330 Cham, Switzerland

Publication or Online Resource

How Does Surface Finish Affect Solder Paste Performance?

Jan 28, 2021 | Tony Lentz

The surface finishes commonly used on printed circuit boards (PCBs) have an effect on solder paste performance in the surface mount process. Some surface finishes are non-planar like hot air solder level (HASL) which can lead to inconsistencies in solder paste printing. Other surface finishes are difficult to wet during reflow like organic solderability preservative (OSP). What is the overall effect of surface finish on solder paste performance? Which solder paste is best for each surface finish? It is the goal of this paper to answer these questions....

Publisher: FCT ASSEMBLY, INC.

FCT ASSEMBLY, INC.

With numerous facilities in the United States, we are one of the electronics industry's leading manufacturers of lead-free solder products, superior quality stencils, and precision cut parts.

Greeley, Colorado, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

Extreme Long Term Printed Circuit Board Surface Finish Solderability Assessment

Jan 28, 2021 | Gerard O'Brien, Solderability Testing and Solutions Inc., Richmond, KY Dave Hillman, Rockwell Collins, Cedar Rapids, IA

Printed circuit board surface finishes are a topic of constant discussion as environmental influences, such as the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive or technology challenges, such as flip chip and 01005 passive components, initiate technology changes. These factors drive the need for greater control of processing characteristics like coplanarity and solderability, which influence the selection of surface finishes and impact costs as well as process robustness and integrity. The ideal printed circuit board finish would have good solderability, long shelf life, ease of fabrication/processing, robust environmental performance and provide dual soldering/wirebonding capabilities; unfortunately no single industry surface finish possesses all of these traits. The selection of a printed circuit board surface finish is ultimately a series of compromises for a given application....

Publisher: Solderability Testing and Solutions Inc

Solderability Testing and Solutions Inc

Solderability Testing and Solutions Inc is located in Richmond, KY, United States and is part of the Consumer Services Industry. Solderability Testing and Solutions Inc has 2 total employees across all of its locations ...

Richmond, Kentucky, USA

Research Institute / Laboratory

Reliability of Stacked Microvia

Jan 21, 2021 | Hardeep Heer & Ryan Wong

Reliability of Microvia has been a concern since microvias were introduced to our industry. This study was designed to understand the reliability of Type 1, Type 2, and Type 3 Microvias. Reliability Test Coupon design was developed in co-operation with PWB Interconnect to include up to four stacks of microvias placed on and off a buried via. Standard FR4 material, meeting the requirement of IPC-4101/24, was selected and IST thermal cycling was chosen as a reliability test method. Staggered microvias were not considered because previous testing has shown that staggered microvias are as reliable as single stage microvias. It was also decided to have all the microvias plated shut during the copper plating process. Samples were produced as one lot, utilizing FTG's standard manufacturing processes. Efforts were made to include all possible test conditions required to understand microvia reliability....

Publisher: Firan Technology Group

Firan Technology Group

FTG is a leading North American manufacturer of high technology printed circuit boards and precision illuminated display systems.

Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Manufacturer of Assembled PCBs, Contract Manufacturer, Service Provider

Reliability Testing For Microvias In Printed Wire Boards

Jan 21, 2021 | Bill Birch

Traditional single level microvia structures are generally considered the most robust type of interconnection within a printed wire board (PWB) substrate. The rapid implementation of HDI technology now commonly requires between 2, 3 or 4 levels of microvias sequentially processed into the product. Recent OEM funded reliability testing has confirmed that by increasing the levels (stack height) these structures are proving less reliable, when compared to their single or double level counterparts. Recently false positive results have been recorded on products tested with traditional thermal shock testing methodology (cycling between -40°C and 125°C, or 145°C). A number of companies are incurring product failures resulting in increased costs associated with replacing the circuit boards, components and added labour....

Publisher: PWB Interconnect Solutions Inc.

PWB Interconnect Solutions Inc.

PWB Interconnect Systems Inc. is a Canadian company established in 1996. We design and manufacture test equipment and provide services to test the reliability of bare Printed Wiring/Circuit Boards (PWBs/PCBs). These products ...

Nepean, Ontario, Canada

Test Services

Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu/Sn-58Bi composite solder joint assembled using a low-temperature reflow process for PoP technology

Jan 13, 2021 | Yu-An Shen, Shiqi Zhou, Jiahui Li, Chih-han Yang, Sijie Huang, Shih-kang Lin, Hiroshi Nishikawa

Package-on-Package (PoP) is a popular technology for fabricating chipsets of accelerated processing units. However, the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between Si chips and polymer substrates induces thermal warpage during the reflow process. As such, the reflow temperature and reliability of solder joints are critical aspects of PoP. Although Sne58Bi is a good candidate for low-temperature processes, its brittleness causes other reliability issues. In this study, an in-situ observation was performed on composite solders (CSs) made of ......

Publisher: Osaka University

Osaka University

Osaka University, or Handai, is a public research university located in Osaka Prefecture, Japan. It was one of Imperial Universities in Japan, one of the Designated National University and selected as a Top Type university ...

Osaka, Japan

School

Design and Experiment of a Moving Magnet Actuator Based Jetting Dispenser

Jan 13, 2021 | Minh-Sang Tran and Sheng-Jye Hwang

Developing actuators to drive high-frequency jetting dispensers in the dispensing technology for electronic assembly applications has become a concern in recent years. This study proposed a new jetting dispenser without a displacement amplification mechanism directly actuated by a moving magnet actuator (MMA) to jet small fluid droplets. In this article, the main geometric dimensions of ......

Publisher: National Cheng Kung University

National Cheng Kung University

National Cheng Kung University is a public research university located in Tainan, Taiwan. NCKU is one of the best comprehensive universities in Taiwan and a leader in promoting industry-academia cooperation. ...

Tainan City, Taiwan

School

Challenges of Manufacturing with Printed Circuit Board Cavities

Jan 06, 2021 | William O. Alger, Pedro J. Martinez, Weston C. Roth

Cavity technology in a Printed Circuit Board (PCB) has existed for many years. The methodology to create the cavity in the PCB has evolved over time as technologies have advanced and the manufacturing process varies by the individual PCB...

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Reflow Soldering Processes and Troubleshooting: SMT, BGA, CSP and Flip Chip Technologies

Jan 03, 2021 | Ning-Cheng Lee

Reflow soldering is the primary method for interconnecting surface mount technology (SMT) applications. Successful implementation of this process depends on whether a low defect rate can be achieved. In general, defects often can be attributed to causes rooted in all three aspects, including materials, processes, and designs. Troubleshooting of reflow soldering requires identification and elimination of root causes. Where correcting these causes may be beyond the reach of manufacturers, further optimizing the other relevant factors becomes the next best option in order to minimize the defect rate....

Publisher: SMTnet

SMTnet

Helping businesses find each other.

Portland, Maine, USA

Other, Consultant, Marketing Agency, Publication or Online Resource, Service Provider

D-PAK Voiding: A Study to Determine the Origins of D-PAK Voiding

Dec 29, 2020 | Kim Flanagan and Greg Wade

Voiding in bottom termination components (BTCs) like QFNs and LGAs have become quote the hot topic in the SMT industry. Surprisingly, one type of BTC component that is observed to have excessive amounts of voiding is the DPAK. One would think that a component with leads located on only one side would mitigate flux entrapment and allow outgassing to escape more easily from beneath the component, as compared to other BTCs where the component is affixed to the PCB on two or more sides. However, the exact opposite has been observed in most cases....

Publisher: Indium Corporation

Indium Corporation

Solder pastes, solder preforms, solder spheres, soldering fluxes, electrically-conductive adhesives. All alloys: tin-lead, lead-free, indium alloys, and more.

Utica, New York, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

Fill the Void V - Mitigation of Voiding for Bottom Terminated Components

Dec 29, 2020 | Tony Lentz, FCT Assembly & Greg Smith, BlueRing Stencils

Voiding in solder joints has been studied extensively, and the effects of many variables compared and contrasted with respect to voiding performance. Solder paste flux, solder powder size, stencil design, circuit board design, via-in-pad design, surface finish, component size, reflow profile, vacuum reflow, nitrogen reflow and other parameters have been varied and voiding quantified for each. The results show some differences in voiding performance with respect to most of these variables but these variables are not independent of each other. Voiding in solder joints is a complex issue that often requires multiple approaches to reduce voiding below required limits. This paper focuses on solutions to voiding for commonly used bottom terminated components (BTCs)....

Publisher: FCT ASSEMBLY, INC.

FCT ASSEMBLY, INC.

With numerous facilities in the United States, we are one of the electronics industry's leading manufacturers of lead-free solder products, superior quality stencils, and precision cut parts.

Greeley, Colorado, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

Stress Analysis and Optimization of a Flip Chip on Flex Electronic Packaging Method for Functional Electronic Textiles

Dec 24, 2020 | englong Li , John Tudor, Russel Torah, and Steve Beeby, Senior Member, IEEE

A method for packaging integrated circuit silicon die in thin flexible circuits has been investigated that enables circuits to be subsequently integrated within textile yarns. This paper presents an investigation into the required materials and component dimensions in order to maximize the reliability of the packaging method. Two die sizes of 3.5 mm×8 mm× 0.53 mm and 2 mm×2 mm×0.1 mm have been simulated and evaluated experimentally under shear load and during bending. The shear and bending experimental results show good agreement with the simulation results and verify the simulated optimal thickness of the adhesive layer. Three underfill adhesives (EP30AO, EP37-3FLF, and Epo-Tek 301 2fl), three highly flexible adhesives (Loctite 4860, Loctite 480, and Loctite 4902), and three substrates (Kapton,Mylar, and PEEK) have been evaluated, and the optimal thickness of each is found. The Kapton substrate, together with the EP37-3FLF adhesive, was identified as the best materials combination with the optimum underfill and substrate thickness identified as 0.05 mm....

Publisher: University of Southampton

University of Southampton

The University of Southampton is a research university in Southampton, England. The university's origins date back to the founding of the Hartley Institution in 1862. In 1902, the Institution developed into the Hartley University

Highfield, Southampton, United Kingdom

School

Investigating the Metric 0201 Assembly Process

Dec 24, 2020 | Clive Ashmore

The advance in technology and its relentless development is delivering yet another surface mount assembly challenge. To meet the market demand for products with higher functionality whilst reducing the overall product size, the next generation of chip package is being readied upon the surface mount community. The Metric 0201 will have dimensions in the order of 0.25mm x 0.125mm, as a result the entire assembly process will be questioned as to its ability to deliver high volume/quality product....

Publisher: ASM Assembly Systems (DEK)

ASM Assembly Systems (DEK)

The ASM SMT Solutions segment is made up of SMT Printing Solutions (DEK) and SMT Placement Solutions (SIPLACE). Under the DEK brand, it sells best-in-class printing solutions for the electronics and solar industries.

Suwanee, Georgia, USA

Screen Printing

Making Sense of Laminate Dielectric Properties

Dec 16, 2020 | Michael J. Gay and Richard Pangier

System operating speeds continue to increase as a function of the consumer demand for such technologies as faster Internet connectivity, video on demand, and mobile communications technology. As a result, new high performance PCB substrates have emerged to address signal integrity issues at higher operating frequencies. These are commonly called low Dk and/or low loss (Df) materials. The published "typical" values found on a product data sheet provide limited information, usually a single construction and resin content, and are derived from a wide range of test methods and test sample configurations. A printed circuit board designer or front end application engineer must be aware that making a design decision based on the limited information found on a product data sheet can lead to errors which can delay a product launch or increase the assembled PCB cost. The purpose of this paper is to highlight critical selection factors that go beyond a typical product data sheet and explain how these factors must be considered when selecting materials for high speed applications...

Publisher: Isola Group

Isola Group

Isola a global material sciences company focused on designing, developing, manufacturing and marketing copper-clad laminates and dielectric prepregs used to fabricate advanced multilayer PCBs.

Chandler, Arizona, USA

Laminates

Moisture Effect on Properties of Out-of-Autoclave Laminates with Different Void Content

Dec 16, 2020 | Afshin Bayatpour, Mehdi Hojjati

Fabrication of large structures using out-of-autoclave prepreg materials will lead to a great amount of savings in manufacturing costs. In the out-of-autoclave processing method, the presence of voids inside the laminate has been an issue due to the lack of high pressure during manufacturing. This study aims primarily to observe the moisture absorption response of composite samples containing different levels of void. By changing the vacuum level inside the bag during the manufacturing process, three different unidirectional laminates at three levels of void have been manufactured. After immersing the samples in warm water at 60°C for about one year, the moisture absorption level was monitored and then diffusion coefficients were calculated using Fick's law. Results show that the moisture absorption coefficient changes by %8 within the experimental range of void contents. The mechanical behaviour of these laminates has been studied at four different moisture levels by performing dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and short beam shear tests. Empirical results indicate that, in general, interlaminar shear strength and glass transition temperature decrease by moisture build-up inside the samples. DiBenedetto equation is proposed to make a correlation between the moisture content and glass transition temperature....

Publisher: Concordia University

Concordia University

As a next-generation university, Concordia sets its sights further and more broadly than others. We align the quality of learning opportunities to larger trends and substantial challenges facing society. We pursue technology ...

Montreal, Quebec, Canada

School

Comparison Of Active And Passive Temperature Cycling

Dec 10, 2020 | Mathias Nowottnick, Andrej Novikov, Dirk Seehase, and Chris Kronwald

Electronic assemblies should have longer and longer service life. Today there are partially demanded 20 years of functional capability for electronics for automotive application. On the other hand, smaller components, such as resistors of size 0201, are able to endure an increasing number of thermal cycles until fail of solder joints, so these are tested sometimes up to 4000 cycles. But testing until the end of life is essential for the determination of failure rates and the prognosis of reliability. Such tests require a lot of time, but this is often not available in developing of new modules. A further acceleration by higher cycle temperatures is usually not possible, because the materials are already operated at the upper limit of the load. However, the duration can be shortened by the use of liquids for passive tests, which allow faster temperature changes and shorter dwell times because of better heat transfer compared to air. The question is whether such tests lead to comparable results and what failure mechanisms are becoming effective. The same goes for active temperature cycles, in which the components itself are heated from inside and the substrate remains comparatively cold. This paper describes the various accelerated temperature cycling tests, compares and evaluates the related degradation of solder joints....

Publisher: University of Rostock

University of Rostock

Founded in 1419, it is the third-oldest university in Germany. It is the oldest and largest university in continental northern Europe and the Baltic Sea area, and 8th oldest in Central Europe.[3]

Rostock, Germany

School

A Non-destructive Approach to Identify Intermittent Failure Locations on Printed Circuit Cards (PCC) that have been Temperature Cycle Tested

Dec 07, 2020 | ACI Technologies, Inc.

Temperature cycling testing is a method of accelerated life testing done to PCCs that are exposed to normal operation temperature variations over its lifetime. During the testing, intermittent "open" failures can first occur at the hot and cold extremes of the test, exposing weaknesses in the design and assembly. A poor/weak solder joint fatigues, a via trace or barrel cracks, loose connections or a component fails all causing an intermittent open. When not at extreme temperatures, the PCC assembly relaxes, the "open" closes creating electrical connectivity. If you are monitoring the PCC under test in-situ you will know that an intermittent failure has occurred, and the test could be stopped for inspection. If in-situ monitoring was not implemented, you would not know if there were intermittent failures or not. The PCC gets powered up and works fine at room temperature....

Publisher: ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI Technologies, Inc.

ACI, an authorized IPC Training Center operating the National Electronics Manufacturing Center of Excellence providing analytical testing, manufacturing and repair services to the electronics industry.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Design, IPC Standards Certification Center, Consultant, Service Provider, Training Provider

SMT007-MIRTEC Intelligent Factory Automation Article-November 2020

Dec 02, 2020 | Brian D'Amico

Industry 4.0 is a topic of much discussion within the electronics manufacturing industry. Manufacturers and vendors are trying to come to terms with what that means. In the most simplistic of terms, Industry 4.0 is a trend toward automation and data exchange within the manufacturing process. This basically requires connectivity and communication from machine to machine within the manufacturing line. The challenge is to collect data from each of the systems within the line and make that data available to the rest of the machines. Without test and inspection, there is no Industry 4.0. The whole purpose of test and inspection is to collect actionable data that may be used to reduce defects and maximize efficiency within the manufacturing line. The goal is to minimize scrap and get a really good handle on those process parameters that need to be put in place to manufacture products the right way the first time. For maximum efficiency, three inspection systems are required within the production line. These are solder paste inspection (SPI) post-solder deposition, automated optical inspection (AOI) post-placement, and AOI post-reflow. This requires a substantial investment; however, the combination of all three inspection machines is really the only true way to provide feedback for each stage of the manufacturing process....

Publisher: MIRTEC Corp

MIRTEC Corp

MIRTEC has earned a solid reputation as one of the most Progressive and Dynamic Suppliers of Automated SMT Inspection Equipment to the Electronics Manufacturing Industry.

Oxford, Connecticut, USA

Inspection, Manufacturer of Test Equipment

Moisture Absorption Properties of Laminates Used in Chip Packaging Applications

Nov 29, 2020 | Gordon Smith, Nancy Androff, and Jeff Kamla

Plastic laminates are increasingly used as interposers within chip packaging applications. As a component within the package, the laminate is subjected to package moisture sensitivity testing. The moisture requirements of chip packaging laminates are related to ambient moisture absorption and thermal cycling. Printed wiring board (PWB) laminates, however, are gauged on properties relating to wet processes such as resist developing, copper etching, and pumice scrubbing. Consequently, printed wiring board moisture absorption test methods differ from chip packaging test conditions....

Publisher: Isola Group

Isola Group

Isola a global material sciences company focused on designing, developing, manufacturing and marketing copper-clad laminates and dielectric prepregs used to fabricate advanced multilayer PCBs.

Chandler, Arizona, USA

Laminates

Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About Laminates... but Were Afraid to Ask

Nov 29, 2020 | Chet Guiles

It has been over 25 years since the earliest edition of "Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About Laminates...but Were Afraid to Ask" was pounded out on an old TRaSh-80 Computer. It has undergone periodic review and editing, including adaption for use on our website. (When I entered the industry Al Gore had not yet invented the internet.) Before I "retired" in 2004, we did another minor revision, but it was largely cosmetic, removing most references to the old military specification and introducing IPC-4101, the "new" specification for laminate and prepreg materials....

Publisher: Arlon Technology Enabling Innovation

Arlon Technology Enabling Innovation

Rancho Cucamonga , California, USA

How to Manage Material Outgassing in Reflow Oven

Nov 24, 2020 | Gerjan Diepstraten

In a lead-free reflow process, temperatures are higher, and materials use outgasses more than in a leaded reflow process. The trends toward higher density populated boards and more pin-in-paste technology also increase solder paste use. More components and more solder paste result in more outgassing of chemistry during the reflow process. Some assemblies report condensation of vapors when the cold printed circuit board enters the oven. Little is known about the interaction between these condensed materials in terms of the interaction between these condensed materials and the reliability of the assembly. Apart from the question of reliability, a printed circuit board contaminated with a small film of residues after reflow soldering is not desirable....

Publisher: Vitronics Soltec

Vitronics Soltec

Global manufacturer of XPM Reflow Ovens, ZEVA Selective Soldering and Delta Wave Soldering Equipment.

Camdenton, Missouri, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Soldering, Selective Soldering

The Risk And Solution For No-Clean Flux Not Fully Dried Under Component Terminations the Risk And Solution For No-Clean Flux Not Fully Dried Under Component Terminations

Nov 24, 2020 | Fen Chen and Ning Cheng Lee, Ph.D.

The miniaturization trend is driving industry to adopting low standoff components or components in cavity. The cost reduction pressure is pushing telecommunication industry to combine assembly of components and electromagnetic shield in one single reflow process. As a result, the flux outgassing/drying is getting very difficult for devices due to poor venting channel. This resulted in insufficiently dried/burnt-off flux residue. For a properly formulated flux, the remaining flux activity posed no issue in a dried flux residue for no-clean process. However, when venting channel is blocked, not only solvents remain, but also activators could not be burnt off. The presence of solvents allows mobility of active ingredients and the associated corrosion, thus poses a major threat to the reliability. In this work, a new halogen-free no-clean SnAgCu solder paste, 33-76-1, has been developed. This solder paste exhibited SIR value above the IPC spec 100 MΩ without any dendrite formation, even with a wet flux residue on the comb pattern. The wet flux residue was caused by covering the comb pattern with 10 mm × 10 mm glass slide during reflow and SIR testing in order to mimic the poorly vented low standoff components. The paste 33-76-1 also showed very good SMT assembly performance, including voiding of QFN and HIP resistance. The wetting ability of paste 33-76-1 was very good under nitrogen. For air reflow, 33-76-1 still matched paste C which is widely accepted by industry for air reflow process. The above good performance on both non-corrosivity with wet flux residue and robust SMT process can only be accomplished through a breakthrough in flux technology....

Publisher: Indium Corporation

Indium Corporation

Solder pastes, solder preforms, solder spheres, soldering fluxes, electrically-conductive adhesives. All alloys: tin-lead, lead-free, indium alloys, and more.

Utica, New York, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

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Jetting Pump for Integration