Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Papers and articles related to SMT, PCB & EMS industry.


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852 SMT / PCB Assembly Related Technical Articles

A Novel Solution for No-Clean Flux not Fully Dried under Component Terminations

Aug 17, 2017 | Dr. Ning-Cheng Lee & Fen Chen

At SMT assembly, flux outgassing/drying is difficult for devices with poor venting channel, and resulted in insufficiently dried/burnt-off flux residue for no-clean process.

Examples including:

  • Large low stand-off components such as QFN, LGA
  • Components covered under electromagnetic shield which has either no or few venting holes
  • Components assembled within cavity of board
  • Any other devices with small open space around solder joints
...

Publisher: Indium Corporation

Indium Corporation

Solder pastes, solder preforms, solder spheres, soldering fluxes, electrically-conductive adhesives. All alloys: tin-lead, lead-free, indium alloys, and more.

Utica, New York, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

A Novel Epoxy Flux On Solder Paste For Assembling Thermally Warped POP

Aug 17, 2017 | Ming Hu, Lee Kresge, and Ning-Cheng Lee

A novel epoxy flux EF-A was developed with good compatibility with no-clean solder pastes, and imparts high reliability for BGA assembly at a low cost. This compatibility with solder pastes is achieved by a well-engineered miscibility between epoxy and no-clean solder paste flux systems, and is further assured with the introduction of a venting channel. The compatibility enables a single bonding step for BGAs or CSPs, which exhibit high thermal warpage, to form a high-reliability assembly. Requirements in drop test, thermal cycling test (TCT), and SIR are all met by this epoxy flux, EF-A. The high viscosity stability at ambient temperature is another critical element in building a robust and userfriendly epoxy flux system. EF-A can be deposited with dipping, dispensing, and jetting. Its 75°C Tg facilitates good reworkability and minimizes the adverse impact of unfilled underfill material on TCT of BGA assemblies....

Publisher: Indium Corporation

Indium Corporation

Solder pastes, solder preforms, solder spheres, soldering fluxes, electrically-conductive adhesives. All alloys: tin-lead, lead-free, indium alloys, and more.

Utica, New York, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

Why is Customer Feedback So Important for PCB Assembly?

Aug 12, 2017 | Tuan Tran

PCB Assembly is Collaborative Manufacturing...

Publisher: Power Design Services

Power Design Services

Power Design Service's quick turn and hands-on customer service provides best-in-class printed circuit board, PCB, flex circuit and prototype design, fabrication, and assembly for your business.

San Jose, California, USA

Contract Manufacturer

Generate Faster PCB Assembly Turnarounds

Aug 12, 2017 | Tuan Tran

The Case of Night Shifts vs. Additional Production Lines for PCB Assembly Efficiency...

Publisher: Power Design Services

Power Design Services

Power Design Service's quick turn and hands-on customer service provides best-in-class printed circuit board, PCB, flex circuit and prototype design, fabrication, and assembly for your business.

San Jose, California, USA

Contract Manufacturer

High Frequency Electrical Performance and Thermo-Mechanical Reliability of Fine-Pitch, Copper - Metallized Through-Package-Vias (TPVs) in Ultra - thin Glass Interposers

Aug 10, 2017 | Sukhadha Viswanathan, Tomonori Ogawa, Kaya Demir, Timothy B. Huang, P. Markondeya Raj, Fuhan Liu, Venky Sundaram, Rao Tummala

This paper demonstrates the high frequency performance and thermo-mechanical reliability of through vias with 25 μm diameter at 50 μm pitch in 100 μm thin glass substrates. Scaling of through via interconnect diameter and pitch has several electrical performance advantages for high bandwidth 2.5D interposers as well as mm-wave components for 5G modules....

Publisher: Georgia Institute of Technology

Georgia Institute of Technology

Center for Board Assembly Research CBAR- advanced research on board assembly processes and systems

Atlanta, Georgia, USA

School

Lean Six Sigma Approach to New Product Development

Aug 02, 2017 | Rita Mohanty

In this rapidly moving electronics market, fast to market with new products is what separates top performing companies from average companies. A survey conducted by Arthur D. Little revealed that "New-Product Development (NPD) productivity in atop performing company is five times what it is in the average company. The top performer gets five times as much new product output for the same investment." What do they know that the rest of us do not? One winning factor is the use of the Robert Cooper process. (...)

This paper will present a Lean Six Sigma approach to "right sizing" the Stage Gate process to be efficient, practical, and easy to manage. Various tools of Stage Gate, along with proven best practice, will be covered. In addition, a reduced Stage Gate model will be discussed for simple, low risk projects....

Publisher: MacDermid Inc.

MacDermid Inc.

MacDermid is a global provider of specialty chemicals for the most complex printed circuit board designs. We specialize in the areas of final finishes, through-hole metallization, and circuit formation.

Waterbury, Connecticut, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Antistatic

Strategic Material Management Generates Value

Aug 02, 2017 | Tuan Tran

When designing innovative products, material concerns often take a backseat to user experience goals. This is natural – after all, good products that offer value to end-users are essentially guaranteed a place on the modern tech marketplace. However, material management concerns take priority when considering the cost and turnaround time of product manufacture....

Publisher: Power Design Services

Power Design Services

Power Design Service's quick turn and hands-on customer service provides best-in-class printed circuit board, PCB, flex circuit and prototype design, fabrication, and assembly for your business.

San Jose, California, USA

Contract Manufacturer

Electrochemical Methods to Measure the Corrosion Potential of Flux Residues

Jul 27, 2017 | Mike Bixenman, DBA, David Lober, Anna Ailworth - Kyzen Corporation, Bruno Tolla, Ph.D., Jennifer Allen, Denis Jean, Kyle Loomis - Kester Corporation

Reliability Expectations of Highly Dense Electronic Assemblies is commonly validated using Ion Chromatography and Surface Insulation Resistance. Surface Insulation Resistance tests resistance drops on both cleaned and non-cleaned circuit assemblies. It is well documented in the literature that SIR detects ionic residue and the potential of this residue to cause leakage currents in the presence of humidity and bias. Residues under leadless components are hard to inspect for and to ensure flux residue is totally removed. The question many assemblers consider is the risk of residues that may still be present under the body of components....

Publisher: KYZEN Corporation

KYZEN Corporation

A leading supplier of precision cleaning chemistries to the worldwide electronics, metal finishing, medical, semiconductor, and optical industries.

Nashville, Tennessee, USA

Cleaning

How to Produce the Best Circuit Boards – Fast!

Jul 24, 2017 | Tuan Tran

Professionally assembling circuit boards used to be slow. Many circuit board manufacturers still take up to two weeks or longer to produce circuit boards according to customer design specifications. ...

Publisher: Power Design Services

Power Design Services

Power Design Service's quick turn and hands-on customer service provides best-in-class printed circuit board, PCB, flex circuit and prototype design, fabrication, and assembly for your business.

San Jose, California, USA

Contract Manufacturer

Strategic Material Management Generates Value

Jul 24, 2017 | Tuan Tran

When designing innovative products, material concerns often take a backseat to user experience goals. This is natural – after all, good products that offer value to end-users are essentially guaranteed a place on the modern tech marketplace. However, material management concerns take priority when considering the cost and turnaround time of product manufacture....

Publisher: Power Design Services

Power Design Services

Power Design Service's quick turn and hands-on customer service provides best-in-class printed circuit board, PCB, flex circuit and prototype design, fabrication, and assembly for your business.

San Jose, California, USA

Contract Manufacturer

How to calibrate JUKI CF feeder

Jul 21, 2017 | Becky Su

1.Choose a feeder with best chip-placement ratio, install the Calibration Ruler on this feeder, then place feeder to calibration equipment’s position table....

Publisher: ZK Electronic Technology Co., Limited

ZK Electronic Technology Co., Limited

ZK Electronic Technology Co., Limited professional in Surface-Mount Technology area and supports most major brands of electronic asembly equipments with a large selections of compatible SMT.

Shenzhen, China

Assembly, Pick and Place, Test Services, Equipment Dealer / Broker, Distributor

Reactivity Of No-Clean Flux Residues Trapped Under Bottom Terminated Components

Jul 20, 2017 | Bruno Tolla, Ph.D., Jennifer Allen, Kyle Loomis - Kester Corporation, Mike Bixenman, DBA - KYZEN Corporation

As electronic devices increase functionality in smaller form factors, there will be limitations, obstacles and challenges to overcome. Advances in component technology can create issues that may have time delayed effects. One such effect is device failure due to soldering residues trapped under bottom terminated components. If the residues trapped under the component termination are active and can be mobilized with moisture, there is the potential for ion mobilization causing current leakage....

Publisher: Kester

Kester

A leading global supplier of assembly materials to the electronic assembly, component and microelectronic marketplaces.

Itasca, Illinois, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

Divergence in Test Results Using IPC Standard SIR and Ionic Contamination Measurements

Jul 13, 2017 | K. Tellefsen, M. Holtzer, T. Cucu, M. Liberatore, M. Schmidt - Alpha Assembly Solutions, S. Moser, L. Henneken, P. Eckold, U. Welzel, R. Fritsch, D. Schlenker - Robert Bosch GmbH

Controlled humidity and temperature controlled surface insulation resistance (SIR) measurements of flux covered test vehicles, subject to a direct current (D.C.) bias voltage are recognized by a number of global standards organizations as the preferred method to determine if no clean solder paste and wave soldering flux residues are suitable for reliable electronic assemblies. The IPC, Japanese Industry Standard (JIS), Deutsches Institut fur Normung (DIN) and International Electrical Commission (IEC) all have industry reviewed standards using similar variations of this measurement. (...)

This study will compare the results from testing two solder pastes using the IPC-J-STD-004B, IPC TM-650 2.6.3.7 surface insulation resistance test, and IPC TM-650 2.3.25 in an attempt to investigate the correlation of ROSE methods as predictors of electronic assembly electrical reliability....

Publisher: Alpha Assembly Solutions

Alpha Assembly Solutions

Alpha Assembly Solutions is a world leader in the development, manufacturing, and sales of innovative materials used in the assembly electronics, industrial joining and Photo Voltaic market places.

South Plainfield, New Jersey, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material

Effects of Package Warpage on Head-in-Pillow Defect

Jul 06, 2017 | Zhenyu Zhao1, Chuan Chen, Yuming Wang, Lei Liu, Guisheng Zou, Jian Cai and Qian Wang - Tsinghua University, Chang Yong Park - Samsung Electronics

Head-in-pillow (HiP) is a BGA defect which happens when solder balls and paste can't contact well during reflow soldering. Package warpage was one of the major reasons for HiP formation. In this paper, package warpage was measured and simulated. It was found that the package warpage was sensitive to the thickness of inside chips. A FEM method considering viscoelastic property of mold compound was introduced to simulate package warpage. The CTE mismatch was found contributes to more than 90% of the package warpage value when reflowing at the peak temperature. A method was introduced to measure the warpage threshold, which is the smallest warpage value that may lead to HiP. The results in different atmospheres showed that the warpage threshold was 50μm larger in N2 than that in air, suggesting that under N2 atmosphere the process window for HiP defects was larger than that under air, which agreed with the experiments....

Publisher: Samsung Electronics

Samsung Electronics

For over 70 years, Samsung has been dedicated to making a better world through diverse businesses. Our flagship company, Samsung Electronics, leads the global market in high-tech electronics manufacturing and digital media.

Suwon, South Korea

Manufacturer of Components

Round Robin of High Frequency Test Methods by IPC-D24C Task Group

Jun 29, 2017 | Glenn Oliver, Jonathan Weldon - DuPont, Chudy Nwachukwu - Isola, John Coonrod - Rogers Corporation, John Andresakis - Park Electrochemical, David L. Wynants, Sr. - Taconic Advanced Dielectric Division

Currently there is no industry standard test method for measuring dielectric properties of circuit board materials at frequencies greater than about 10 GHz. Various materials vendors and test labs take different approaches to determine these properties. It is common for these different approaches to yield varying values of key properties like permittivity and loss tangent. The D-24C Task Group of IPC has developed this round robin program to assess these various methods from the "bottom up" to determine if standardized methods can be agreed upon to provide the industry with more accurate and valid characteristics of dielectrics used in high-frequency and high-speed applications....

Publisher: DuPont

DuPont

World's most dynamic science company, creating sustainable solutions for a better, safer and healthier life.

Wilmington, Delaware, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Components/Substrates, Laminates

Testing Prototype Assembled PCBs — Who Should Do It?

Jun 29, 2017 | Tuan Tran

What's the most cost-effective method for testing prototype PCBs? Should the assembler do it, or the client's in-house engineers? This article explains all....

Publisher: Power Design Services

Power Design Services

Power Design Service's quick turn and hands-on customer service provides best-in-class printed circuit board, PCB, flex circuit and prototype design, fabrication, and assembly for your business.

San Jose, California, USA

Contract Manufacturer

What Is Turnkey Electronic Manufacturing?

Jun 23, 2017 | Tuan Tran

End-to-end PCB assembly by world-class companies like Power Design Services allows you to focus on your core competencies with the added benefits of reduced cost and time to market. From material procurement to circuit board design and manufacturing, and supply chain management, we serve your needs helping you reach customers faster. Here is an overview of what our turnkey electronic manufacturing services consist of, and how you can use them to reduce your build time and cost....

Publisher: Power Design Services

Power Design Services

Power Design Service's quick turn and hands-on customer service provides best-in-class printed circuit board, PCB, flex circuit and prototype design, fabrication, and assembly for your business.

San Jose, California, USA

Contract Manufacturer

Defect Features Detected by Acoustic Emission for Flip-Chip CGA/FCBGA/PBGA/FPBGA Packages and Assemblies

Jun 22, 2017 | Reza Ghaffarian, Ph.D.

C-mode scanning acoustic microscopy (C-SAM) is a non-destructive inspection technique showing the internal features of a specimen by ultrasound. The C-SAM is the preferred method for finding “air gaps” such as delamination, cracks, voids, and porosity. This paper presents evaluations performed on various advanced packages/assemblies especially flip-chip die version of ball grid array/column grid array (BGA/CGA) using C-SAM equipment. For comparison, representative x-ray images of the assemblies were also gathered to show key defect detection features of the two non-destructive techniques....

Publisher: Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Jet Propulsion Laboratory

The JPL is the lead U.S. center for robotic exploration of the solar system, and conducts major programs in space-based Earth sciences and astronomy.

Pasadena, California, USA

IPC Standards Certification Center, Training Provider

Nondestructive Inspection of Underfill Layers Stacked up in Ceramics-Organics-Ceramics Packages with Scanning Acoustic Tomography (SAT)

Jun 15, 2017 | Justin Zeng, Francoise Sarrazin, Jie Lian, Ph.D., Zhen (Jane) Feng, Ph.D., Lea Su, Dennis Willie, David Geiger - Flex International Inc., Masafumi Takada, Natsuki Sugaya - Hitachi Power Solutions, George Tint, Ph.D. - HDI Solutions

Ceramics packages are being used in the electronics industry to operate the devices in harsh environments. In this paper we report a study on acoustic imaging technology for nondestructively inspecting underfill layers connecting organic interposers sandwiched between two ceramics substrates.

First, we inspected the samples with transmission mode of scanning acoustic tomography (SAT) system, an inspection routine usually employed in assembly lines because of its simpler interpretation criteria: flawed region blocks the acoustic wave and appears darker. In this multilayer sample, this approach does not offer the crucial information at which layer of underfill has flaws. To resolve this issue, we use C-Mode Scanning in reflection mode to image layer by layer utilizing ultrasound frequencies from 15MHz to 120MHz. Although the sample is thick and contains at least 5 internal material interfaces, we are able to identify defective underfill layer interfaces....

Publisher: Flex (Flextronics International)

Flex (Flextronics International)

Flextronics is a global full-service supplier of a full spectrum of value-added Electronic Manufacturing Services.

Singapore, Singapore

Design, Service Provider

When to Use Flex Circuit vs. Rigid Circuit Boards

Jun 14, 2017 | Tuan Tran

Flexible circuitry may be preferable to rigid circuitry in situations where space or weight is limited....

Publisher: Power Design Services

Power Design Services

Power Design Service's quick turn and hands-on customer service provides best-in-class printed circuit board, PCB, flex circuit and prototype design, fabrication, and assembly for your business.

San Jose, California, USA

Contract Manufacturer

Intermetallic Growth in Tin-Rich Solders

Jun 13, 2017 | Louis Zakraysek

For tin-rich solder alloys, 200 C (392 F) is an extreme temperature. Intermetallic growth in tin-copper systems is known to occur and is believed to bear a direct relationship to failure mechanisms. This study of morphological changes with time at elevated temperatures was made to determine growth rates of tin-copper intermetallics. Preferred growth directions, rates of thickening, and notable changes in morphology were observed.

Each of four tin-base alloys was flowed on copper and exposed to temperatures between 100 C and 200 C for time periods of up to 32 days. Metallographic sections were taken and the intermetallics were examined. Intermetallic layer thickening is characterized by several distinct stages. The initial growth of side plates is extremely rapid and exaggerated. This is followed by retrogression (spheroidization) of the elongated peaks and by general thick-...

Publisher: General Electric

General Electric

What makes GE great? According to a survey in FORTUNE magazine, GE is the most admired company in the world. We have great products and great processes, but most importantly, we have great people! To View Our Current Job Openings Please Visit Our Web

SCHENECTADY, New York, USA

Manufacturer of Components, Manufacturer of Assembled PCBs, Other, Recruiter / Employment Company

Establishing a Precision Stencil Printing Process for Miniaturized Electronics Assembly

Jun 13, 2017 | Chris Anglin

The advent of miniaturized electronics for mobile phones and other portable devices has required the assembly of smaller and smaller components. Currently 01005 passives and 0.3 mm CSPs are some of the components that must be assembled to enable these portable electronic devices. It is widely accepted that about 65% of all end of the line defects occur in the stencil printing process. Given all of the above, it is critical that a precision stencil printing process be developed to support miniaturized electronic assembly.

This paper is a summary of a significant amount of experimental data and process optimization techniques that were employed to establish a precision SMT printing process....

Publisher: Indium Corporation

Indium Corporation

Solder pastes, solder preforms, solder spheres, soldering fluxes, electrically-conductive adhesives. All alloys: tin-lead, lead-free, indium alloys, and more.

Utica, New York, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

Low-Cost Inkjet Printing Technology for the Rapid Prototyping of Transducers

Jun 08, 2017 | Bruno Ando, Salvatore Baglio, Vincenzo Marletta, Antonio Pistorio; DIEEI-University of Catania, Adi R. Bulsara, Teresa Emery; Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific

Recently, there has been an upsurge in efforts dedicated to developing low-cost flexible electronics by exploiting innovative materials and direct printing technologies. This interest is motivated by the need for low-cost mass-production, shapeable, and disposable devices, and the rapid prototyping of electronics and sensors. This review, following a short overview of main printing processes, reports examples of the development of flexible transducers through low-cost inkjet printing technology....

Publisher: DIEEI-University of Catania

DIEEI-University of Catania

Department of Electrical, Electronics and Computer Engineering (DIEEI).

Catania, Italy

School

Evaluating the Effects of Plasma Treatment prior to Conformal Coating on Electronic Assemblies to Enhance Conformity of Coverage

Jun 01, 2017 | John D. Vanderford, Ann E. Paxton - Desich SMART Center, Dave Selestak - Nordson MARCH

The corrosion of Nickel-Palladium-Gold (Ni-Pd-Au) finish terminals in humid environments is known to be reduced with the application of a conformal coating such as acrylic. Corrosion has a higher rate of occurrence around the terminal ‘knee’ of a surface mount component, which may be reduced with the application of conformal coatings. Although radio frequency (RF) plasma processing is generally known to enhance conformity of conformal coating to surfaces through ionic bombardment, the effect on the functionality of assembled printed circuit boards (PCB) is not as well known.

The purpose of this study is to assess whether RF plasma processing can enhance the adhesive and coverage qualities of an acrylic conformal coating on PCBs, specifically on Ni-Pd-Au terminals with a knee, and if plasma processing has an effect on the electrical functionality of components and fully assembled PCB....

Publisher: Nordson MARCH

Nordson MARCH

Nordson MARCH is the global leader in plasma cleaning equipment and plasma applications technology. The company has designed and manufactured plasma equipment for more than 30 years.

Concord, California, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Cleaning, Component Preparation, Repair/Rework, OEM

Improve Assembly Turnaround For Tab-Routed Array Panelization

May 31, 2017 | Tuan Tran

These guidelines give the assembly team a standardized, no-nonsense method to produce a reliable panelization solution. By eliminating panelization guesswork, you ensure successful assembly even for complex projects....

Publisher: Power Design Services

Power Design Services

Power Design Service's quick turn and hands-on customer service provides best-in-class printed circuit board, PCB, flex circuit and prototype design, fabrication, and assembly for your business.

San Jose, California, USA

Contract Manufacturer

Model for Improvement of Fluxing Process on Selective Soldering Machines

May 25, 2017 | Goran Tasevski, Elena Papazoska

Purpose of this research is to identify the factors that directly influence the effectiveness of the fluxing process in selective soldering machines, using the design of experiment methodology with associated factors and levels used in the experiment. Final findings gives directions for set up of the optimal fluxing parameters that will enable appropriate flux appliance and to gain reduction of soldering quality issues which foundations are from this process....

Publisher: Visteon Electronics

Visteon Electronics

Visteon designs, engineers and manufactures vehicle cockpit electronics products and connected car solutions that deliver a rich, connected experience for drivers and passengers.

Van Buren Charter Township, Michigan, USA

Other

The First Reed Switch Auto Insertion Machine in the World hits the Market

May 21, 2017 | Denise Anderson-Rivas

Reed Switches, or Herkons, are extremely useful for many electronic applications. Reed Switches work by means of magnetism in reed relays and for electrical circuit control. In the presence of a magnetic field the reed will either open or close, depending on it's original positioning and purpose. They are extremely useful as they are hermetically sealed and can operate in almost any environment.

Reed Switch insertion into PCBs have historically been conducted by means of manual labor, by hand. As Auto Insertion mechanisms have advanced, there are new technologies on the market that can accommodate these highly useful switches via automated machines. Through Hole Technologies (THT) have advanced to now offer mechanized equipment to automate an assembly line that requires Reed Switch insertion. The first ever Reed Switch Machine is now available on the market for production assembly and auto insertion uses. This will make electronic products requiring Reed Switches easier to produce, faster, and more affordable for an entire manufacturing production. ...

Publisher: Shenzhen Southern Machinery Sales and Service Co., Ltd

Shenzhen Southern Machinery Sales and Service Co., Ltd

to provide you with guidance from the AI PCB design(DFM),AI process(NPI) to import equipment installation and auto insertion technology(THT) training, machine trouble shooting/upgrade/overhaul.

Shenzhen, China

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Manufacturer of Assembled PCBs, Design, Equipment Dealer / Broker, Service Provider

How to Use the Right Flux for the Selective Soldering Application

May 17, 2017 | Bruno Tolla Ph.D, Denis Jean, Xiang Wei Ph.D

The selective soldering application requires a combination of performance attributes that traditional liquid fluxes designed for wave soldering applications cannot fulfill. First, the flux deposition on the board needs to be carefully controlled. Proper fine tuning of the flux physicochemical characteristics combined with a process optimization are mandatory to strike the right balance between solderability and reliability. However, localization of the flux residue through the drop jet process is not enough to guarantee the expected performance level. The flux needs to be designed to minimize the impact of unavoidable spreading and splashing events.

From this perspective a fundamental understanding of the relationships between formulation and reliability is critical. In this application, thermal history of the flux residues (from room temperature to solder liquidus) is a key performance driver. Finally, it is necessary to conduct statistically designed experiments on industrial selective soldering machines in order to map the relationships between flux characteristics and selective process friendliness....

Publisher: Kester

Kester

A leading global supplier of assembly materials to the electronic assembly, component and microelectronic marketplaces.

Itasca, Illinois, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

Privacy Threats through Ultrasonic Side Channels on Mobile Devices

May 11, 2017 | Daniel Arp, Erwin Quiring, Christian Wressnegger and Konrad Rieck

Device tracking is a serious threat to the privacy of users, as it enables spying on their habits and activities. A recent practice embeds ultrasonic beacons in audio and tracks them using the microphone of mobile devices.

In this paper, we explore the capabilities, the current prevalence and technical limitations of this new tracking technique based on three commercial tracking solutions. To this end, we develop detection approaches for ultrasonic beacons and Android applications capable of processing these....

Publisher: Technical University Braunschweig

Technical University Braunschweig

The TU Braunschweig is the oldest institute of technology in Germany. It was founded in 1745 as Collegium Carolinum and is a member of TU9, an incorporated society of the most renowned and largest Ger

Brunswick, Germany

School

Development of a Consistent and Reliable Thermal Conductivity Measurement Method, Adapted to Typical Composite Materials Used in the PCB Industry

May 04, 2017 | François Lechleiter; Cimulec, Yves Jannot; Université de Lorraine

Most of today's printed circuit board base materials are anisotropic and it is not possible to use a simple method to measure thermal conductivity along the different axis, especially when a good accuracy is expected. Few base material suppliers' datasheet show X, Y and Z thermal conductivities. In most cases, a single value is given, moreover determined with a generic methodology, and not necessarily adapted to the reality of glass-reinforced composites with a strong anisotropy.

After reminding of the fundamentals in thermal science, this paper gives an overview of the state-of the art in terms of thermal conductivity measurement on PCB base materials, and some typical values. It finally proposes an innovative method called transient fin method, and associated test sample, to perform reliable and consistent in plane thermal conductivity measurement on anisotropic PCB base materials....

Publisher: CIMULEC

CIMULEC

Manufacturer of printed circuit boards for adapted technological and innovative solutions

Ennery, France

Manufacturer of Assembled PCBs

Industry 4.0 in USA: Risk

Apr 28, 2017 | Don Fitchett

A major drawback to Industry 4.0 that few write about is maintenance of an industry 4.0 plant. The maintenance aspect is a much greater and immediate drawback than even the commonly known major concern of security, and the lesser concern of system integration standards. Maintenance of 4.0 systems has, and will continue to result in related huge increases in process downtime. The barriers to overcoming the maintenance/downtime drawbacks of a 4.0 system are almost insurmountable. Has the Smart Manufacturing Leadership Coalition (SMLC) addressed the maintenance paradox? “... model also demands the ability to calculate and manage risk and uncertainty within very different operating structures. ..” Continue reading in pdf or for even more see and share http://bin95.com/Industry40inUSA.htm ...

Publisher: Business Industrial Network

Business Industrial Network

Offers training software and videos. Also on site training and seminars that qualify for CEUs to maintenance, engineering and management professionals.

St. Louis, Missouri, USA

Consultant, Publication or Online Resource, Service Provider, Software Manufacturer, Training Provider

Material Effects of Laser Energy When Processing Circuit Board Substrates during Depaneling

Apr 27, 2017 | Ahne Oosterhof, Eastwood Consulting

Using modern laser systems for the depanelization of circuit boards can create some challenges for the production engineer when it is compared to traditional mechanical singulation methods. Understanding the effects of the laser energy to the substrate material properly is essential in order to take advantage of the technology without creating unintended side effects.

This paper presents an in-depth analysis of the various laser system operating parameters that were performed to determine the resulting substrate material temperature changes. A theoretical model was developed and compared to actual measurements. The investigation includes how the temperature increase resulting from laser energy during depaneling affects the properties of the PCB substrate, which varies from no measurable change to a lowering of the surface resistance of the cut wall depending on the cutting parameters....

Publisher: LPKF Laser & Electronics

LPKF Laser & Electronics

With its broad product range LPKF is one of the world market leaders in the "in-house rapid PCB prototyping" and "StencilLaser" services

Tualatin, Oregon, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Drilling/Routing

A Guide to Successful Printed Circuit Board Documentation

Apr 24, 2017 | Tuan Tran

The process of taking a design from schematic to actual working prototype is a complex one, however, and proper documentation is the best way to simplify it....

Publisher: Power Design Services

Power Design Services

Power Design Service's quick turn and hands-on customer service provides best-in-class printed circuit board, PCB, flex circuit and prototype design, fabrication, and assembly for your business.

San Jose, California, USA

Contract Manufacturer

IST AG - Focus on Flow Sensors

Apr 20, 2017 | Innovative Sensor Technology

IST AG thin film mass flow sensors offer solutions for a wide variety of flow applications. The thin film and membrane technologies incorporate highly accurate temperature sensors and heaters as core elements of the sensors. IST AGs flow sensors are applicable in gas (liquids upon request), have an operating temperature range of -30 °C to +450 °C, and can measure low rate and direction from 0.0001 m/s (microflowSens) to 100 m/s (respectively from 1 mL/min to 10 L/min). In addition to measuring flow rates, our sensors can detect the presence of a liquid, biofilm or bubbles as well as indicate liquid level. Development channels guarantee the best possible adaptation of our sensors, whether in terms of dynamic range, response time, directional detection or ambient conditions. ...

Publisher: Innovative Sensor Technology USA Division

Innovative Sensor Technology USA Division

Innovative Sensor Technology is a manufacturer of thin-film platinum and nickel RTD temperature sensors, capacitive humidity sensors, mass flow sensors, conductivity and biosensors.

Las Vegas, Nevada, USA

Manufacturer of Components

High Throw Electroless Copper - Enabling new Opportunities for IC Substrates and HDI Manufacturing

Apr 20, 2017 | Tobias Sponholz, Lars-Eric Pribyl, Frank Brüning, Robin Taylor

The one constant in electronics manufacturing is change. Moore's Law, which successfully predicted a rate of change at which transistor counts doubled on Integrated Circuits (ICs) at lower cost for decades, is ceding to be an appropriate prediction tool. Increasing technical and economic requirements, deriving from the semiconductor environment, are cascaded down to the printed circuit and in particular to the IC substrate manufacturers. This is both a challenge and an opportunity for IC Substrate manufacturers, when dealing with the demands of the packaging market. (...)

This paper introduces two new electroless copper baths developed for IC substrates manufacturing based on Semi Additive Process (SAP) technology (hereafter referred to as E'less Copper IC) and HDI production (hereafter referred to as E'less Copper HDI) and optimized for high throw into BMVs. An introduction to reliable throwing power measurement methods based on scanning electron microscope (SEM) is given, followed by a compilation and discussion of key performance criteria for each application, namely throwing power, copper adhesion on the substrate, dry film adhesion and reliability....

Publisher: Atotech

Atotech

One of the world's leading suppliers of integrated production systems, chemistry, equipment, know-how and service for electroplating, semiconductor and printed circuit board manufacturing.

Berlin, Germany

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Manufacturer of Components, Components/Substrates

Six Reasons to Invest in Product Prototypes Early and Often

Apr 15, 2017 | Tuan Tran

Few things are more exciting to manufacturers than new product ideas. New designs, engineering challenges and the ability to deliver a new user experience are all rewarding hallmarks of innovation. However, the road that separates conceptualization and commercialization is riddled with tight turns and obstacles. Fast, efficient prototyping is one of the best ways to prepare yourself for the journey....

Publisher: Power Design Services

Power Design Services

Power Design Service's quick turn and hands-on customer service provides best-in-class printed circuit board, PCB, flex circuit and prototype design, fabrication, and assembly for your business.

San Jose, California, USA

Contract Manufacturer

WHERE RFID TAGS ARE USED

Apr 14, 2017 | catherine

RFID tags and labels have been used around in our life with rising trend, no matter where you go, RFID may used there. But someone still have such questions, where RFID tags are used? what are RFID tags used for? why use RFID tags? And where can I buy RFID tags? If you have such questions, congratulation! You come to the right place!...

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A Study to Determine the Impact of Solder Powder Mesh Size and Stencil Technology Advancement on Deposition Volume when Printing Solder Paste

Apr 13, 2017 | Karl Seelig, Tim O'Neill

The drive to reduced size and increased functionality is a constant in the world of electronic devices. In order to achieve these goals, the industry has responded with ever-smaller devices and the equipment capable of handling these devices. The evolution of BGA packages and leadless devices is pushing existing technologies to the limit of current assembly techniques and materials.

As smaller components make their way into the mainstream PCB assembly market, PCB assemblers are reaching the limits of Type 3 solder paste, which is currently in use by most manufacturers.

The goal of this study is to determine the impact on solder volume deposition between Type 3, Type 4 and Type 5 SAC305 alloy powder in combination with stainless steel laser cut, electroformed and the emerging laser cut nano-coated stencils. Leadless QFN and μBGA components will be the focus of the test utilizing optimized aperture designs....

Publisher: AIM Solder

AIM Solder

AIM is a leading global manufacturer of tin-lead and lead-free solder assembly materials for the electronics industry.

Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

Kaphesion VSI Parylenes solution to Polyimide Adhesion

Apr 13, 2017 | Soraya Terrab

Parylene has been used for decades as a barrier layer to protect critical devices and components. The parylene deposition process typically requires an adhesion promotion step to make sure the parylene adheres well to the base substrate. Typical adhesion methods don't work well on Kapton and Polyamide, until VSI Parylene came up with a solution....

Publisher: VSI Parylene

VSI Parylene

VSI Parylene specializes in conformal coating services that deliver consistent, repeatable and high-quality molecular protection. Our proven process ensures personal attention, rapid development, and precise coatings.

Broomfield, Colorado, USA

Components/Substrates, Contract Manufacturer, Service Provider

Luceda Photonics Delivers a Silicon Photonics IC Solution in Tanner L-Edit.

Apr 06, 2017 | Wim Bogaerts, Pieter Dumon, Martin Fiers; Luceda Photonics, Jeff Miller; Mentor Graphics

Silicon photonics is an IC technology where data is transferred using light that is routed on the chip using optical waveguides (Figure 1). Silicon photonics is best known as a method to solve problems with high input/output bandwidth applications. For example, because of ever-growing bandwidth requirements in datacenters, the optical transmit and receive heads are being placed closer and closer to the board and the IC. But, designers also apply this technology to biosensors, medical diagnostics, and environmental monitoring. Regardless of the application, photonic ICs always need integration to electronic circuits and this results in unique challenges....

Publisher: Mentor Graphics

Mentor Graphics

A leader in software solutions for electroncs design, Mentor Graphics is the only EDA company with a total end-to-end solution for design though manufacturing.

Wilsonville, Oregon, USA

Design, Software Manufacturer

Multiple Methods for Applying Paste Flux or Solder Paste for BGA Rework

Mar 30, 2017 | Bob Wettermann, BEST Inc. MIT

There are multiple methods, each with its associated benefits for given applications, for printing either solder paste or paste flux for BGA rework. Each of these methods is best-suited for a given situation, board layout and skill level of operators performing the BGA rework. This discussion will layout the various methods and present the specific circumstances for which the specific technique is most wellsuited. In addition, the pluses and minuses for each of the approaches will be discussed in detail....

Publisher: BEST Inc.

BEST Inc.

BEST offers professional rework, repair and prototype builds of PCBs. Our experienced instructors teach professional soldering classes as we are an IPC certified training center.

Rolling Meadows, Illinois, USA

Repair/Rework, Soldering, IPC Standards Certification Center, Service Provider, Training Provider

Water Soluble Solder Paste, Wet Behind the Ears or Wave of the Future

Mar 22, 2017 | Tony Lentz

Water soluble lead-free solder paste is widely used in today’s SMT processes, but the industry is slowly moving away from water soluble solder pastes in favor of no-clean solder pastes. This shift in usage of solder paste is driven by an effort to eliminate the water wash process. Some components cannot tolerate water wash and elimination of water washing streamlines the SMT process. Despite this shift, certain applications lend themselves to the use of water soluble solder paste.

This paper details the research and development of a new water soluble lead-free solder paste which improves on the performance characteristics of existing technologies....

Publisher: FCT ASSEMBLY, INC.

FCT ASSEMBLY, INC.

With numerous facilities in the United States, we are one of the electronics industry's leading manufacturers of lead-free solder products, superior quality stencils, and precision cut parts.

Greeley, Colorado, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

Best Practices for RoHS Compliance in support of CE Marking

Mar 15, 2017 | Randy Flinders

In 2012, The European Directive on Reduction of Hazardous Substances was recast. The new version of the directive now requires products to be adequately validated as RoHS compliant in order to be eligible for CE marking and access to the EU market (...)

This paper starts by reviewing the evolution of the RoHS directive and how it has evolved. It then moves on to cover the requirements and scope of the directive, as well as which standards are used to demonstrate compliance, and how those standards must be referenced in internal company quality processes....

Publisher: GreenSoft Technology, Inc.

GreenSoft Technology, Inc.

GreenSoft Technology is a leading provider of environmental compliance content management tools, software and services for the global electronics industry for RoHS-2, REACH, Conflict Minerals and other regulations.

Pasadena, California, USA

Environmental Resources, Service Provider, Software Manufacturer

Screen-Printing Fabrication and Characterization of Stretchable Electronics

Mar 09, 2017 | Jari Suikkola, Toni Björninen, Mahmoud Mosallaei, Timo Kankkunen, Pekka Iso-Ketola, Leena Ukkonen, Jukka Vanhala & Matti Mäntysalo

This article focuses on the fabrication and characterization of stretchable interconnects for wearable electronics applications. Interconnects were screen-printed with a stretchable silver-polymer composite ink on 50-μm thick thermoplastic polyurethane. The initial sheet resistances of the manufactured interconnects were an average of 36.2 mΩ/◽, and half the manufactured samples withstood single strains of up to 74%. The strain proportionality of resistance is discussed, and a regression model is introduced. Cycling strain increased resistance. However, the resistances here were almost fully reversible, and this recovery was time-dependent. Normalized resistances to 10%, 15%, and 20% cyclic strains stabilized at 1.3, 1.4, and 1.7. We also tested the validity of our model for radio-frequency applications through characterization of a stretchable radio-frequency identification tag....

Publisher: Tampere University of Technology

Tampere University of Technology

TUT is Finland's second-largest university in engineering sciences located next to the Technology Centre Hermia, including a large Nokia research facility.

Tampere, Finland

School

Nanoelectromechanical Switches for Low-Power Digital Computing

Mar 02, 2017 | Alexis Peschot, Chuang Qian, Tsu-Jae King Liu

The need for more energy-efficient solid-state switches beyond complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) transistors has become a major concern as the power consumption of electronic integrated circuits (ICs) steadily increases with technology scaling. Nano-Electro-Mechanical (NEM) relays control current flow by nanometer-scale motion to make or break physical contact between electrodes, and offer advantages over transistors for low-power digital logic applications: virtually zero leakage current for negligible static power consumption; the ability to operate with very small voltage signals for low dynamic power consumption; and robustness against harsh environments such as extreme temperatures. Therefore, NEM logic switches (relays) have been investigated by several research groups during the past decade. Circuit simulations calibrated to experimental data indicate that scaled relay technology can overcome the energy-efficiency limit of CMOS technology.

This paper reviews recent progress toward this goal, providing an overview of the different relay designs and experimental results achieved by various research groups, as well as of relay-based IC design principles. Remaining challenges for realizing the promise of nano-mechanical computing, and ongoing efforts to address these, are discussed....

Publisher: EECS at University of California

EECS at University of California

The Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences (EECS) at UC Berkeley offers one of the strongest research and instructional programs in this field anywhere in the world.

Berkeley, California, USA

School

The Evolution of Surface Finishes in Mobile Phone Applications

Feb 28, 2017 | Claus Würtz Nielsen Nokia Mobile Phones R&D

During the last 5 years mobile phones and other portable consumer electronics have been extremely popular and spread all over the world in different climate zones in very high volumes. At the same time the mobile phone terminal for many people has become a necessity that is brought with them in any activity they practice. These changes in user behavior have heavily changed the impact on handheld terminals from moisture, sweat, corrosive atmospheres and mechanical drop. As a result of this the requirement to solder joint reliability, corrosion stability and wear resistance are heavily increasing to keep a high reliability of the terminal.

Immersion Ni/Au has been the overall dominant surface finish on Printed Wiring Boards (PWB's) for the last 10 years, but a paradigm shift to avoid use of this thin and porous surface finish is ongoing nowadays because it can’t address these challenges in a satisfactory way.

In today's handheld terminals, Organic Solder Preservative (OSP) has replaced Immersion Ni/Au on solder pads. Carbon surface finish for Key- and spring contact-pads, combined with the right concept design can make use of Immersion Ni/Au unnecessary in the near future. The result will be higher reliability with less expensive and simpler processes.

This paper will discuss the various considerations for choice of surface finish and results from the feasibility studies performed....

Publisher: Nokia Corporation

Nokia Corporation

Founded in 1865, NOKIA is a Finnish multinational communications and information technology company.

Espoo, Finland

Other

Best Practices for Collecting Product Material and Compliance Data

Feb 23, 2017 | PTC

Managing the environmental performance of products is an increasingly complicated challenge for manufacturers today. These companies face a complex tangle of requirements and mandates from regulators, consumers and customers to manage the toxicity, recycleability and overall environmental impact of their products. Not only have governments, business-to-business customers and consumers demonstrated a clear preference for better environmentally performing and "greener" brands, but investors are now pressuring manufacturers, as well. For example, the Dow Jones Sustainability Index identifies and tracks leading sustainability-driven companies around the world.

This paper focuses on the challenges companies face and the best practices they can employ when collecting substance, material and compliance data from their suppliers and supply chain....

Publisher: PTC

PTC

PTC is a global technology provider of the leading IoT and AR platform and field-proven solutions transform how companies create, operate, and service products.

Needham, Massachusetts, USA

Other

Component Level Reliability For High Temperature Power Computing With SAC305 And Alternative High Reliability Solders

Feb 16, 2017 | Thomas Sanders, Sivasubramanian Thirugnanasambandam and John Evans, Ph.D., Michael Bozack, Ph.D., Jeff Suhling, Ph.D. - Auburn University, Wayne Johnson, Ph.D. - Tennessee Tech University

This experiment considers the reliability of a variety of different electronic components and evaluates them on 0.200” power computing printed circuit boards with OSP. Single-sided assemblies were built separately for the Top-side and Bottom-side of the boards. This data is for boards on the FR4-06 substrate.

This paper was originally published by SMTA in the Proceedings of SMTA International....

Publisher: Auburn University

Auburn University

Auburn University is a comprehensive land-grant institution with primary missions including instruction, research, and extension/outreach.

Auburn, Alabama, USA

School

Can Age and Storage Conditions Affect the SIR Performance of a No-Clean Solder Paste Flux Residue?

Feb 09, 2017 | Eric Bastow

The SMT assembly world, especially within the commercial electronics realm, is dominated by no-clean solder paste technology. A solder paste flux residue that does not require removal is very attractive in a competitive world where every penny of assembly cost counts. One important aspect of the reliability of assembled devices is the nature of the no-clean solder paste flux residue. Most people in this field understand the importance of having a process that renders the solder paste flux residue as benign and inert as possible, thereby ensuring electrical reliability.

But, of all the factors that play into the electrical reliability of the solder paste flux residue, is there any impact made by the age of the solder paste and how it was stored? This paper uses J-STD-004B SIR (Surface Insulation Resistance) testing to examine this question....

Publisher: Indium Corporation

Indium Corporation

Solder pastes, solder preforms, solder spheres, soldering fluxes, electrically-conductive adhesives. All alloys: tin-lead, lead-free, indium alloys, and more.

Utica, New York, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

BGA Rework Process

Feb 01, 2017 | Bob Wettermann

BGA Rework Course encompasses the skills necessary to perform rework of electronic printed circuit boards to include PBGA and CBGA technologies. There should be 'one-stop' solution, that offers a wide range of ball grid array rework and repair services....

Publisher: BEST Inc.

BEST Inc.

BEST offers professional rework, repair and prototype builds of PCBs. Our experienced instructors teach professional soldering classes as we are an IPC certified training center.

Rolling Meadows, Illinois, USA

Repair/Rework, Soldering, IPC Standards Certification Center, Service Provider, Training Provider

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PCB, BGA Rework Services

PCB contract manufacturer