Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Papers and articles related to SMT, PCB & EMS industry.


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828 SMT / PCB Technical Articles

Manufacturing Operations System Design and Analysis

May 06, 1999 | C. Hilton, Manufacturing Strategic Support, Technology and Manufacturing Engineering, Intel Corp.

This paper describes manufacturing operations design and analysis at Intel. The complexities and forces of both the market and the manufacturing process combine to make the development of improved semiconductor fabrication manufacturing strategies (like lot dispatching, micro and macro scheduling policies, labor utilization, layout, etc.) particularly important......

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

The Evolution of Intel's Copy EXACTLY! Technology Transfer Method

May 06, 1999 | Chris J. McDonald , Intel SEMATECH

Semiconductor manufacturing is characterized by very complex process flows made up of individual process steps, many of which are built to very close tolerances. Furthermore, there are complex interactions in these process flows, whereby each process step can affect many other steps, and each final device parameter might be determined by the results from many inputs......

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

21st Century Semiconductor Manufacturing Capabilities

May 06, 1999 | Eugene S. Meieran, Intel Corp.

Semiconductor device manufacturers face many difficult challenges as we enter the 21st century. Some are direct consequences of adherence to Gordon Moore's Law, which states that device complexity doubles about every 18 months. Feature size reduction, increased wafer diameter, increased chip size, ultra-clean processing, and defect reduction among others are manifestations that have a direct bearing on the cost and quality of products, factory flexibility in responding to changing technology or business conditions, and on the timelines of product delivery to the ultimate customer....

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Defect-Based Test: A Key Enabler for Successful Migration to structural test

May 06, 1999 | Sanjay Sengupta, Sandip Kundu, Sreejit Chakravart, Praveen Parvathal, Rajesh Galivanche, George Kosonocky, Mike Rodgers, TM Mak; MPG Test Technology, Intel Corp.

ntelís traditional microprocessor test methodology, based on manually generated functional tests that are applied at speed using functional testers, is facing serious challenges due to the rising cost of manual test generation and the increasing cost of high-speed testers. If current trends continue, the cost of testing a device could exceed the cost of manufacturing it. We therefore need to rely more on automatic test pattern generation (ATPG) and low-cost structural testers....

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Challenges of CAD Development for Datapath Design

May 06, 1999 | Tim Chan, Amit Chowdhary, Bharat Krishna, Artour Levin, Gary Meeker, Naresh Sehga

In many high-performance VLSI designs, including all recent Intel microprocessors, datapath is implemented in a bit-sliced structure to simultaneously manipulate multiple bits of data. The circuit and layout of such structures are largely kept the same for each bit slice to achieve maximal performance, higher designer productivity, and better layout density. There are very few tools available to automate the design of a general datapath structure, most of which is done manually......

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Nike's Software Architecture and Infrastructure: Enabling Integrated Solutions for Gigahertz Designs

May 06, 1999 | Nike Development, DT, Intel Corp.

This paper describes how Nike’s innovative architecture addresses the expanding requirements of Intel’s next-generation processor designs while enabling a design environment that is more productive than one built with the previous tool generation....

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Silicon Microelectronics Technology

May 06, 1999 | James T. Clemens

This paper begins with a historical review of that revolution, from the first integrated circuit to modern very large scale integration (VLSI) technology, and then reviews the development of present-day microelectronics manufacturing technology......

Publisher: Alcatel-Lucent

Alcatel-Lucent

Alcatel-Lucent- Enterprise Business Group is a world leader in the delivery of communications solutions for businesses, including contact center software, small/medium business telephony and IP addres

Calabasas, California, USA

Service Provider

The Future of Solid-State Electronics

May 06, 1999 | William F. Brinkman, Mark R. Pinto

This paper explores the direction in which IC technology is headed, highlights potential roadblocks and possible solutions, and discusses some of the physical considerations that could determine the ultimate limits of integration....

Publisher: Alcatel-Lucent

Alcatel-Lucent

Alcatel-Lucent- Enterprise Business Group is a world leader in the delivery of communications solutions for businesses, including contact center software, small/medium business telephony and IP addres

Calabasas, California, USA

Service Provider

The History of the Microprocessor

May 06, 1999 | Michael R. Betker, John S. Fernando, Shaun P. Whalen

Invented in 1971, the microprocessor evolved from the inventions of the transistor (1947) and the integrated circuit (1958). Essentially a computer on a chip, it is the most advanced application of the transistor. The influence of the microprocessor today is well known, but in 1971 the effect the microprocessor would have on everyday life was a vision beyond even those who created it. This paper presents the history of the microprocessor in the context of the technology and applications that drove its continued advancements....

Publisher: Alcatel-Lucent

Alcatel-Lucent

Alcatel-Lucent- Enterprise Business Group is a world leader in the delivery of communications solutions for businesses, including contact center software, small/medium business telephony and IP addres

Calabasas, California, USA

Service Provider

Key Steps to the Integrated Circuit

May 06, 1999 | Mark Melliar-Smith, Douglas E. Haggan, William W. Troutman

This paper traces the key steps that led to the invention of the integrated circuit (IC). The first part of this paper reviews the steady improvements in the performance and fabrication of single transistors in the decade after the Bell Labs breakthrough work in 1947. It sketches the various developments needed to produce a practical IC. In addition, the more advanced processes such as diffusion, oxide masking, photolithography, and epitaxy, which culminated in the planar process, are summarized....

Publisher: Alcatel-Lucent

Alcatel-Lucent

Alcatel-Lucent- Enterprise Business Group is a world leader in the delivery of communications solutions for businesses, including contact center software, small/medium business telephony and IP addres

Calabasas, California, USA

Service Provider

The Foundation of the Silicon Age

May 06, 1999 | Ian M. Ross

The invention of the transistor almost fifty years ago was one of the most important technical developments of this century. It has had profound impact on the way we live and the way we work. This paper describes the events that led to the invention of the point-contact transistor in December of 1947. It continues with the development of the theory of the junction transistor in early 1948 and the fabrication of the first grown-junction transistor in 1950....

Publisher: Alcatel-Lucent

Alcatel-Lucent

Alcatel-Lucent- Enterprise Business Group is a world leader in the delivery of communications solutions for businesses, including contact center software, small/medium business telephony and IP addres

Calabasas, California, USA

Service Provider

The Thermal Side of 64-Bit Processing

May 06, 1999 | Christopher Chapman, Aavid Thermal Products, Inc.

The newest workstations and servers, targeting computationally-intensive applications and large-scale database management, use 64-bit microprocessors and provide the next generation of computing power. ...

Publisher: Aavid Thermalloy, LLC

Aavid Thermalloy, LLC

For nearly 50 years, Aavid has been the world leader in thermal management solutions.

Laconia, New Hampshire, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Thermal Management of Electrolytic Capacitors

May 06, 1999 | Christopher Soule, Aavid Thermal Products, Inc.

Input voltage capacitors are typically the parts that fail first in a high power circuit. Today's requirements for increasingly smaller packages is driving high component densities in power systems, as in all systems. As the package size... ...

Publisher: Aavid Thermalloy, LLC

Aavid Thermalloy, LLC

For nearly 50 years, Aavid has been the world leader in thermal management solutions.

Laconia, New Hampshire, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Thermal Engineering Overview.

May 06, 1999 | Craig Johnston, Gary Kuzmin, Aavid Engineering, Inc.

The present problem with cooling microprocessors is a relatively new issue -- about 4 years old. It stems from the collision of two conflicting trends -- end-user desire for more powerful microprocessors to run the next generation software, and the equally strong demand for smaller, more mobile computer form factors. With each, the introduction of faster next-generation semiconductors aimed at improving computing power, heat concentration problems increase....

Publisher: Aavid Thermalloy, LLC

Aavid Thermalloy, LLC

For nearly 50 years, Aavid has been the world leader in thermal management solutions.

Laconia, New Hampshire, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Miniaturization of Cooling Solutions

May 06, 1999 | Christopher Chapman, Aavid Thermal Products, Inc.

The market's demand for increasingly powerful products, in smaller and smaller packaging, creates a cooling problem. Integrated circuit (IC) lifetime is dependent upon its operating temperature, creating a trade-off situation: either you enlarge the package to accept additional cooling, or you sacrifice IC lifetime....

Publisher: Aavid Thermalloy, LLC

Aavid Thermalloy, LLC

For nearly 50 years, Aavid has been the world leader in thermal management solutions.

Laconia, New Hampshire, USA

Manufacturer of Components

The Basics of Package/Device Cooling

May 06, 1999 | Christopher Chapman, Aavid Thermal Products, Inc.

The most reliable and well-designed electronic device can malfunction or fail if it overheats. Considering thermal issues early in the design process results in a thermally conscious system layout and minimizes costs through the use of passive cooling and off-the-shelf components. When thermal issues are left until completion of the design, the only remaining solution may be a costly custom heat sink that requires all the space available. Incorporating a heat sink or a fan into a product after it is fully developed can be expensive, and still may not provide sufficient cooling of the device. ...

Publisher: Aavid Thermalloy, LLC

Aavid Thermalloy, LLC

For nearly 50 years, Aavid has been the world leader in thermal management solutions.

Laconia, New Hampshire, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Larger Packages Fuel Thermal Strategies

May 06, 1999 | Christopher Chapman, Aavid Thermal Products, Inc.

The trend toward surface-mount assembly processes is making ball-grid array (BGA) packaging a popular choice for many types of devices, forcing designers to re-examine cooling of these large packages. While devices in BGAs transfer more heat to the board than leaded devices, the style of BGA packages has a large influence on the ability to transfer heat through other pathways, such as a top-mounted heat sink. Physical characteristics of the BGA further constrain the thermal designer. It takes forethought in board design to successfully accommodate devices that require significant heat dissipation. Multiple solutions exist, however, for BGA packages of all types....

Publisher: Aavid Thermalloy, LLC

Aavid Thermalloy, LLC

For nearly 50 years, Aavid has been the world leader in thermal management solutions.

Laconia, New Hampshire, USA

Manufacturer of Components

How To Size Heat Sinks For Semiconductors

May 06, 1999 | Jeffery Schindler, Aavid Thermal Products, Inc.

As microprocessor speeds increase, their power needs rise proportionally. This also puts higher demands on the voltage regulator that feeds the processor chip. In spite of the increased power, the regulator chip tends to remain the same size.....

Publisher: Aavid Thermalloy, LLC

Aavid Thermalloy, LLC

For nearly 50 years, Aavid has been the world leader in thermal management solutions.

Laconia, New Hampshire, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Beat the Heat in Notebooks With Software

May 06, 1999 | Christopher L. Chapman, Aavid Thermal Products, Inc.

Pentium-class portables present significant packaging problems. The heat generated inside a notebook not only reduces microprocessor reliability, but the reliability of peripheries such as hard drives and video chips. Although the processor is the primary heat-generating source, it isn’t always the component least tolerant of temperature......

Publisher: Aavid Thermalloy, LLC

Aavid Thermalloy, LLC

For nearly 50 years, Aavid has been the world leader in thermal management solutions.

Laconia, New Hampshire, USA

Manufacturer of Components

As Cool as a Cucumber: Managing the Heat Produced by IC Developments

May 06, 1999 | Christopher A. Soule

Many of us tend to think of semiconductors as low power, cool devices. But as the number of transistors in an integrated circuit increases, so does power consumption increases and the need to dissipate the resulting heat load. Microprocessors, in particular, consume more and more power with increase in speed and complexity. ...

Publisher: Aavid Thermalloy, LLC

Aavid Thermalloy, LLC

For nearly 50 years, Aavid has been the world leader in thermal management solutions.

Laconia, New Hampshire, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Augmented-Fin-Air Cooled Heat Sinks

May 06, 1999 | Christopher A. Soule

Augmented-Fin Air-Cooled Heat Sinks Achieve Higher Performance without Significant Rise in Static Pressure Drop....

Publisher: Aavid Thermalloy, LLC

Aavid Thermalloy, LLC

For nearly 50 years, Aavid has been the world leader in thermal management solutions.

Laconia, New Hampshire, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Augmentation Improves Thermal Performance of Air Cooled Heat Sinks.

May 06, 1999 | Christopher A. Soule, Aavid Thermal Products,Inc.

Augmentation of extended surfaces used to dissipate heat increases the overall effectiveness of a heat sink and increases the heat removed per unit volume. This amount of increase depends on the number of augmentations, air flow velocity and ......

Publisher: Aavid Thermalloy, LLC

Aavid Thermalloy, LLC

For nearly 50 years, Aavid has been the world leader in thermal management solutions.

Laconia, New Hampshire, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Optimizing the Wave Soldering Process with Hot Nitrogen Knives

Apr 29, 1999 | Chrys Shea, Siemens, & Gary Shipe, Air Products

The paper describes the effects of a debridging knife on inerted soldering environments in an Electrovert Econopak wave solder machine. It reviews experiments to improve the purity of the soldering environment and results of the tests....

Publisher: Siemens Corporation

Siemens Corporation

Siemens Corporation is a U.S. subsidiary of Siemens AG, a global powerhouse in electronics and electrical engineering, operating in the industry, energy, healthcare, and infrastructure & cities sectors.

Washington, District of Columbia, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment

VOC-Free Wave Solder Flux Evaluation

Apr 26, 1999 | Chrys Shea, Siemens ICN

The goal of the flux evaluation was to identify one product that would meet the needs of all SICN's wave solder products and processes while producing high quality assemblies. At the outset of the evaluation, it was unclear whether a single flux chemistry could satisfy such a broad range of demands, particularly because SICN's utilization of less aggressive, low-impact chemicals....

Publisher: Siemens Corporation

Siemens Corporation

Siemens Corporation is a U.S. subsidiary of Siemens AG, a global powerhouse in electronics and electrical engineering, operating in the industry, energy, healthcare, and infrastructure & cities sectors.

Washington, District of Columbia, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment

The Characterization and Comparison of Spray Fluxers

Apr 26, 1999 | Chrys Shea & Tom Chinnici, Siemens Business Communication Systems, Inc., Originally published at Nepcon West '98

An evaluation of two fluxers, one with a reciprocating ultrasonic head and the other with microjets, was performed using nine independent criteria. The paper describes the methods of testing and the results....

Publisher: Siemens Corporation

Siemens Corporation

Siemens Corporation is a U.S. subsidiary of Siemens AG, a global powerhouse in electronics and electrical engineering, operating in the industry, energy, healthcare, and infrastructure & cities sectors.

Washington, District of Columbia, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment

Intel Packaging Databook

Apr 15, 1999 | Intel Corporation

Intel's Packaging Databook is intended to serve as a data reference for engineering design, as well as a guide to Intel package selection and availability. IC assembly, performance characteristics, physical constants, detailed discussions of SMT, etc....

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

An Introduction to Solder Materials

Apr 15, 1999 | Brian Bauer, Rick Lathrop

Solder paste is a seemingly simple material that forms one of the foundations of the surface mount assembly operation. If the solder paste does not do its job correctly then first pass yield will be severely reduced. ...

Publisher: Heraeus

Heraeus

We design and manufacture SMT assembly materials.

W. Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

Speed Printing of SMT Adhesives

Apr 15, 1999 | Richard R. Lathrop Jr., Heraeus

High-speed printing techniques are revealed that break the speed barrier resulting from air entrapment in large apertures at fast squeegee speeds. Adhesive printability test results using conventional thickness stencils to achieve a significant range of d...

Publisher: Heraeus

Heraeus

We design and manufacture SMT assembly materials.

W. Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

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