Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Papers and articles related to SMT, PCB & EMS industry.


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812 SMT / PCB Technical Articles

Soldering Faster At Lower Temperatures: A Performance Comparison

May 09, 1999 | Doug Wilkerson, Technical Services Manager.

Studies and tests of comparative soldering iron thermal performance at low temperatures - Metcal direct power soldering technology compared to conventional stored energy soldering irons from leading manufacturers. ...

Publisher: Metcal

Metcal

Manufacturer of high-performance precision rework systems for the electronics bench. Product lines include: Hand Soldering and Desoldering, Convection Rework products, Fume Extraction and Fluid Dispensing tools.

Cypress, California, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Adhesives/Dispensing, Repair/Rework, Soldering

Hand Soldering, Electrical Overstress, and Electrostatic Discharge

May 09, 1999 | Ron LaValley, Edwin Oh

This paper will give the reader a general understanding of EOS and ESD phenomena. It specifically addresses hand soldering's role in EOS and ESD and how to protect against and test for potential problems. It discusses how Metcal Systems address EOS and ESD concerns and how they differ from conventional soldering systems....

Publisher: Metcal

Metcal

Manufacturer of high-performance precision rework systems for the electronics bench. Product lines include: Hand Soldering and Desoldering, Convection Rework products, Fume Extraction and Fluid Dispensing tools.

Cypress, California, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Adhesives/Dispensing, Repair/Rework, Soldering

Extending Soldering Iron Tip Life

May 09, 1999 | Metcal

This Technical Note discusses the construction of solder tips, the various failure modes associated with tip plating (cracking, wear, corrosion, and dewetting), how to diagnose those failure modes, and specific practices that can be taken to minimize or eliminate each one....

Publisher: Metcal

Metcal

Manufacturer of high-performance precision rework systems for the electronics bench. Product lines include: Hand Soldering and Desoldering, Convection Rework products, Fume Extraction and Fluid Dispensing tools.

Cypress, California, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Adhesives/Dispensing, Repair/Rework, Soldering

Surface Mount Rework Techniques

May 09, 1999 | Brian Moylan

This Technical Note outlines, step by step, the easiest ways to remove and replace surface mounted devices, using the lowest possible temperatures. This document discusses the following topics: Removal and replacement of discrete and passive components (capacitors, resistors, SOTs), Removal of two-sided components (SOICs, SOJs, TSOPs), Removal of quad components (PLCCs, QFPs), Replacement of quad components including fine-pitched devices. ...

Publisher: Metcal

Metcal

Manufacturer of high-performance precision rework systems for the electronics bench. Product lines include: Hand Soldering and Desoldering, Convection Rework products, Fume Extraction and Fluid Dispensing tools.

Cypress, California, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Adhesives/Dispensing, Repair/Rework, Soldering

Managing the transition on a global scale -- changing the cleaning agent means changes to equipment, processes, process control specifications and standards.

May 09, 1999 | William G. Kenyon, Sr. Research Associate

The production of electronics began with hand soldering, followed by manual cleaning, which reached its peak during the NASA program. Each step in the process tended to be considered on a stand alone basis, without thought being given to the preceding and following steps. Since each step had its own set of specifications, this led to a "patchwork" approach to overall quality....

Publisher: DuPont

DuPont

World's most dynamic science company, creating sustainable solutions for a better, safer and healthier life.

Wilmington, Delaware, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Components/Substrates, Laminates

Manufacturing Considerations When Implementing Voc-Free Flux Technology

May 07, 1999 | David Scheiner, Senior Technical Service Engineer Kester

In 1990 the United States Environmental Protection Agency Issued the Clean Air Act. The Clean Air Act and subsequent amendments are designed to limit the use of chemicals that contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The document goes into great detail setting limits for allowable VOC emissions for different industries....

Publisher: Kester

Kester

A leading global supplier of assembly materials to the electronic assembly, component and microelectronic marketplaces.

Itasca, Illinois, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

SMT Process Recommendations Defect Minimization Methods for a No-Clean SMT Process

May 07, 1999 | Kurt Rajewski

Key competitive advantages can be obtained through the minimization of process defects and disruptions. In today's electronic manufacturing processes there are many variables to optimize. By gaining an understanding of what the defects are, and where they come from, is a key step in the process towards defect free/six sigma manufacturing. In the last decade, Surface Mount Technology processes have been slowly converting towards the No-Clean philosophy. This new trend has spawned new processing issues which need to be addressed. This paper will investigate solutions to current problems in the processing of No-Clean SMT processes....

Publisher: Kester

Kester

A leading global supplier of assembly materials to the electronic assembly, component and microelectronic marketplaces.

Itasca, Illinois, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

Soldering to Gold Over Nickel Surfaces

May 07, 1999 | Dennis Bernier

There are many things that can go wrong when soldering to gold plate over nickel surfaces. First of all, we know that gold and solder are not good friends, as any time solder comes into contact with gold, something seems to go wrong. Either the solder bonds to the gold and eventually pulls off as the tin and gold cross-migrate, leaving voids; or the solder completely removes the gold and is expected to bond to the metal which was under the gold....

Publisher: Kester

Kester

A leading global supplier of assembly materials to the electronic assembly, component and microelectronic marketplaces.

Itasca, Illinois, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

Characterization of No Clean Solderpaste Residues: The Relationship to In-Circuit Testing

May 07, 1999 | Merlin Kister, Kester Solder

Many manufacturers have now completed the conversion to no clean solder paste. Many factors governed this initial conversion, among those being cosmetics, solder ability, and process ability. In circuit testing or probing through no clean solder paste residues has topically not been a major factor in the conversion decision for several reasons. Due to board design, solder paste was only used on one side of the board and not subjected to testing......

Publisher: Kester

Kester

A leading global supplier of assembly materials to the electronic assembly, component and microelectronic marketplaces.

Itasca, Illinois, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

The Nature of White Residue on Printed Circuit Assemblies

May 07, 1999 | Dennis F. Bernier, Vice President, Research & Development, Kester Solder

White residue remaining after cleaning circuit board assemblies can be caused by a variety of chemicals and reactions. Rosin and water-soluble fluxes, circuit board resins and epoxies, component materials and other contamination all contribute to this complex chemistry. This paper discusses many of the sources of the residues that seem to be an ever-increasing occurrence....

Publisher: Kester

Kester

A leading global supplier of assembly materials to the electronic assembly, component and microelectronic marketplaces.

Itasca, Illinois, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

The Effect Of Metallic Impurities On The Wetting Properties Of Solder

May 07, 1999 | Dennis Bernier, Kester Solder Company

This paper is a report of a study made to determine the maximum allowable impurities in solder used for wave soldering applications. This report concludes with a list of impurities compiled from actual analyses of solder which caused production problems. A list of recommended maximum allowable impurities will assist in establishing reliable quality controls on the purity level of the solder in a wave soldering machine....

Publisher: Kester

Kester

A leading global supplier of assembly materials to the electronic assembly, component and microelectronic marketplaces.

Itasca, Illinois, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

Implementation of a High-Quality Dolby* Digital Decoder Using MMX™ Technology

May 07, 1999 | James C. Abel, Michael A. Julier

Software decoding of Dolby Digital allows it to become a baseline capability on the PC, with greater flexibility than a hardware approach. Intel's MMX™ technology provides instructions that can significantly speed up the execution of the Dolby Digital decoder, freeing up the processor to perform other tasks such as video decoding and/or audio enhancement. Intel has worked closely with Dolby Laboratories to define an implementation of Dolby Digital based on MMX technology that has achieved Dolby's certification of quality....

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

MMX™ Microarchitecture of Pentium® Processors With MMX Technology and Pentium® II Microprocessors

May 07, 1999 | Michael Kagan, Simcha Gochman, Doron Orenstien, Derrick Lin

The MMX™ technology is an extension to the Intel Architecture (IA) aimed at boosting the performance of multimedia applications. This technology is the most significant IA extension since the introduction of the Intel386™ microprocessor. The challenge in implementing this technology came from retrofitting the new functionality into existing Pentium® and Pentium® Pro processor designs....

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

MMX™ Technology Architecture Overview

May 07, 1999 | Millind Mittal, Alex Peleg, Uri Weiser

Media (video, audio, graphics, communication) applications present a unique opportunity for performance boost via use of Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) techniques. While several of the computeintensive parts of media applications benefit from SIMD techniques, a significant portion of the code still is best suited for general purpose instruction set architectures. MMX™ technology extends the Intel Architecture (IA), the industry's leading general purpose processor architecture, to provide the benefits of SIMD for media applications....

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

A PROM Element Based on Salicide Agglomeration of Poly Fuses in a CMOS Logic Process

May 07, 1999 | Intel Corp.

A novel programmable element has been developed and evaluated for state of the art CMOS processes. This element is based on agglomeration of tVarious aspects of these programmable devices including characterization and optimization of physical and electrical aspects of the element, programming yield, and reliability have been studied. Development ofhe Ti-silicide layer on top of poly fuses. ...

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Redundancy and High-Volume Manufacturing Methods

May 07, 1999 | Christopher W. Hampson, MD6 Cache Product Engineering, Hillsboro, OR, Intel Corp.

This paper will describe practical aspects of a redundancy implementation on a high-volume cache memory product. Topics covered include various aspects of redundancy from a design and product engineering perspective; and present test development methods for future product implementations....

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Redundancy Yield Model for SRAMS

May 07, 1999 | Nermine H. Ramadan, STTD Integration/Yield, Hillsboro, OR, Intel Corp.

This paper describes a model developed to calculate number of redundant good die per wafer. A block redundancy scheme is used here, where the entire defective memory subarray is replaced by a redundant element. A formula is derived to calculate the amount of improvement expected after redundancy. This improvement is given in terms of the ratio of the overall good die per wafer to the original good die per wafer after considering some key factors....

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Intel StrataFlash™ Memory Development and Implementation

May 07, 1999 | Al Fazio, Mark Bauer

This paper will review the device physics governing the operation of the industry standard ETOX™ flash memory cell and show how it is ideally suited for multiple bit per cell storage, through its storage of electrons on an electrically isolated floating gate and through its direct access to the memory cell....

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Intel StrataFlash™ Memory Technology Overview

May 07, 1999 | Greg Atwood, Al Fazio, Duane Mills, Bill Reaves

The Intel StrataFlashTM memory technology represents a cost breakthrough for flash memory devices by enabling the storage of two bits of data in a single flash memory transistor. This paper will discuss the evolution of the two bit/cell technology from conception to production....

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Illinois-Intel Multithreading Library: Multithreading Support for Intel Architecture Based Multiprocessor Systems

May 07, 1999 | Milind Girkar, Mohammad R. Haghighat, Paul Grey, Hideki Saito, Nicholas J. Stavrakos, Constantine D. Polychronopoulos

Powerful desktop multiprocessor systems based on the Intel Architecture (iA) offer a formidable alternative to traditional scientific/engineering workstations for commercial application developers at an attractive costperformance ratio. However, the lack of adequate compiler and runtime library support for multithreading and parallel processing on Windows NT* makes it difficult or impossible to fully exploit the performance advantage of these multiprocessor systems. In this paper we describe the design, development, and initial performance results of the Illinois-Intel Multithreading Library (IML), which aims at providing an efficient and powerful (in terms of types of parallelism it supports) API for multithreaded application developers....

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Scalable Platform Services on the Intel TFLOPS Supercomputer

May 07, 1999 | Bradley Mitchell; Server Software Technology

This paper describes Scalable Platform Services (SPS)- a collection of software providing the manageability solution for Intel's latest parallel processing supercomputer. ...

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Achieving Large Scale Parallelism Through Operating System Resource Management on the Intel TFLOPS Supercomputer

May 07, 1999 | Sharad Garg, Robert Godley, Richard Griffiths, Andrew Pfiffer, Terry Prickett, David Robboy, Stan Smith, T. Mack Stallcup, Stephan Zeisset.

From the point of view of an operating system, a computer is managed and optimized in terms of the application programming model and the management of system resources. For the TFLOPS system, the problem is to manage and optimize large scale parallelism. This paper looks at the management in terms of three key topics: memory management, communication, and input/output....

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

The Performance of the Intel TFLOPS Supercomputer

May 07, 1999 | Greg Henry, Pat Fay, Ben Cole, Timothy G. Mattson.

The purpose of building a supercomputer is to provide superior performance on real applications. In this paper, we describe the performance of the Intel TFLOPS Supercomputer starting at the lowest level with a detailed investigation of the Pentium® Pro processor and the supporting memory subsystem....

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

An Overview of the Intel TFLOPS Supercomputer

May 07, 1999 | Timothy G. Mattson, Greg Henry

In this paper, we give an overview of the ASCI Option Red Supercomputer. The motivation for building this supercomputer is presented and the hardware and software views of the machine are described in detail. We also briefly discuss what it is like.....

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Computer Vision Face Tracking For Use in a Perceptual User Interface

May 07, 1999 | Gary R. Bradski; Microcomputer Research Lab

As a first step towards a perceptual user interface, a computer vision color tracking algorithm is developed and applied towards tracking human faces. Computer vision algorithms that are intended to form part of a perceptual user interface must be fast and efficient. They must be able to track in real time yet not absorb a major share of computational resources: other tasks must be able to run while the visual interface is being used. The new algorithm developed here is based on a robust nonparametric technique for climbing density gradients to find the mode (peak) of probability distributions called the mean shift algorithm....

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

An Overview of Advanced Failure Analysis Techniques for Pentium® and Pentium® Pro Microprocessors

May 07, 1999 | Yeoh Eng Hong, Lim Seong Leong, Wong Yik Choong, Lock Choon Hou, Mahmud Adnan; Intel Penang Microprocessor Failure Analysis Department, Malaysia

Failure analysis (FA) is one of the key competencies in Intel. It enables very rapid achievement of world class manufacturing standards, resulting in excellent microprocessor time-to-market performance. This paper discusses the evolution of FA techniques from one generation of microprocessors to another....

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

EUV Lithography -The Successor to Optical Lithography?

May 07, 1999 | John E. Bjorkholm

This paper discusses the basic concepts and current state of development of EUV lithography (EUVL), a relatively new form of lithography that uses extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation with a wavelength in the range of 10 to 14 nanometer (nm) to carry out projection imaging. Currently, and for the last several decades, optical projection lithography has been the lithographic technique used in the high-volume manufacture of integrated circuits. It is widely anticipated that improvements in this technology will allow it to remain the semiconductor industry's workhorse through the 100 nm generation of devices. However, some time around the year 2005, so-called Next-Generation Lithographies will be required. ...

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

MOS Scaling: Transistor Challenges for the 21st Century

May 07, 1999 | Scott Thompson, Paul Packan, Mark Bohr

To enable transistor scaling into the 21st century, new solutions such as high dielectric constaConventional scaling of gate oxide thickness, source/drain extension (SDE), junction depths, and gate lengths have enabled MOS gate dimensions to be reduced from 10mm in the 1970’s to a present day size of 0.1mm. To enable transistor scaling into the 21st century, new solutions such as high dielectric constant materials for gate insulation and shallow, ultra low resistivity junctions need to be developed. In this paper, for the first time, key scaling limits are quantified for MOS transistorsnt materials for gate insulation and shallow, ultra low resistivity junctions need to be developed....

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

The Quality and Reliability of Intel's Quarter Micron Process

May 07, 1999 | Krishna Seshan, Timothy J. Maloney, Kenneth J. Wu

This paper describes how the quality and reliability of Intel's products are designed, measured, modeled, and maintained. Four main reliability topics: ESD protection, electromigration, gate oxide wearout, and the modeling and management of mechanical stresses are discussed. Based on an analysis of the reliability implications of device scaling, we show how these four topics are of prime importance to component reliability......

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Why Wide Fine Pitch Pads?

May 07, 1999 | Rick Lathrop, Heraeus SMT Technical Services

Fine pitch SMT devices, although certainly not new, present more of an assembly processing challenge than 50 mil pitch devices. In fact it seems that the finer the pitch the more difficult or narrower the process window becomes. Besides the pitch of the leads being less on fine pitch devices narrower pad width on the board is typical. With fine pitch designs the board fabrication process is also stressed in that the strip of mask between the pads is designed narrower, the alignment of the mask to copper becomes more critical...

Publisher: Heraeus

Heraeus

We design and manufacture SMT assembly materials.

W. Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

Stereolithography and Simultaneous Engineering Speed Products to Market

May 07, 1999 | AMP Incorporated

Stereolithography is a handy tool not only for speeding a design to market but also in giving customers an early edge. By allowing a form-and-fit sample to be quickly made from a computer model, stereolithography coupled with simultaneous engineering allows customers to see product models early in the design cycle. And if a picture is worth a thousand words, what's a tangible sample worth?...

Publisher: TE Connectivity

TE Connectivity

A technology leader in the world's fastest growing markets, helping connect power, data and signal in everything from automotive and aerospace to broadband communications, consumer, energy and industrial applications.

Schaffhausen, Switzerland

Manufacturer of Components, IPC Standards Certification Center, Training Provider

Solder Volumes for Through-Hole Reflow-Compatible Connectors

May 06, 1999 | AMP Incorporated

The success of surface-mount technology has not meant the end of through-hole connectors. For reasons ranging from availability to user concerns over reliability, through-hole connectors remain widely used. ...

Publisher: TE Connectivity

TE Connectivity

A technology leader in the world's fastest growing markets, helping connect power, data and signal in everything from automotive and aerospace to broadband communications, consumer, energy and industrial applications.

Schaffhausen, Switzerland

Manufacturer of Components, IPC Standards Certification Center, Training Provider

Keeping Tin Solderable

May 06, 1999 | AMP Incorporated

Tin plating on a component lead makes its soldering easier. Everybody knows that. Not so well known is that tin plating has shelf life -- its ability to be easily soldered degrades over time. the speed and severity of degradation depends both on storage conditions and on the plating itself......

Publisher: TE Connectivity

TE Connectivity

A technology leader in the world's fastest growing markets, helping connect power, data and signal in everything from automotive and aerospace to broadband communications, consumer, energy and industrial applications.

Schaffhausen, Switzerland

Manufacturer of Components, IPC Standards Certification Center, Training Provider

Specifying Current for the Real World

May 06, 1999 | TE Connectivity

To help the designer set the appropriate current level, AMP has developed a new method of specifying current-carrying capacity. This new method takes into account the various application factors that influence current rating. ...

Publisher: TE Connectivity

TE Connectivity

A technology leader in the world's fastest growing markets, helping connect power, data and signal in everything from automotive and aerospace to broadband communications, consumer, energy and industrial applications.

Schaffhausen, Switzerland

Manufacturer of Components, IPC Standards Certification Center, Training Provider

Manufacturing Operations System Design and Analysis

May 06, 1999 | C. Hilton, Manufacturing Strategic Support, Technology and Manufacturing Engineering, Intel Corp.

This paper describes manufacturing operations design and analysis at Intel. The complexities and forces of both the market and the manufacturing process combine to make the development of improved semiconductor fabrication manufacturing strategies (like lot dispatching, micro and macro scheduling policies, labor utilization, layout, etc.) particularly important......

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

The Evolution of Intel's Copy EXACTLY! Technology Transfer Method

May 06, 1999 | Chris J. McDonald , Intel SEMATECH

Semiconductor manufacturing is characterized by very complex process flows made up of individual process steps, many of which are built to very close tolerances. Furthermore, there are complex interactions in these process flows, whereby each process step can affect many other steps, and each final device parameter might be determined by the results from many inputs......

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

21st Century Semiconductor Manufacturing Capabilities

May 06, 1999 | Eugene S. Meieran, Intel Corp.

Semiconductor device manufacturers face many difficult challenges as we enter the 21st century. Some are direct consequences of adherence to Gordon Moore's Law, which states that device complexity doubles about every 18 months. Feature size reduction, increased wafer diameter, increased chip size, ultra-clean processing, and defect reduction among others are manifestations that have a direct bearing on the cost and quality of products, factory flexibility in responding to changing technology or business conditions, and on the timelines of product delivery to the ultimate customer....

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Defect-Based Test: A Key Enabler for Successful Migration to structural test

May 06, 1999 | Sanjay Sengupta, Sandip Kundu, Sreejit Chakravart, Praveen Parvathal, Rajesh Galivanche, George Kosonocky, Mike Rodgers, TM Mak; MPG Test Technology, Intel Corp.

ntelís traditional microprocessor test methodology, based on manually generated functional tests that are applied at speed using functional testers, is facing serious challenges due to the rising cost of manual test generation and the increasing cost of high-speed testers. If current trends continue, the cost of testing a device could exceed the cost of manufacturing it. We therefore need to rely more on automatic test pattern generation (ATPG) and low-cost structural testers....

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Challenges of CAD Development for Datapath Design

May 06, 1999 | Tim Chan, Amit Chowdhary, Bharat Krishna, Artour Levin, Gary Meeker, Naresh Sehga

In many high-performance VLSI designs, including all recent Intel microprocessors, datapath is implemented in a bit-sliced structure to simultaneously manipulate multiple bits of data. The circuit and layout of such structures are largely kept the same for each bit slice to achieve maximal performance, higher designer productivity, and better layout density. There are very few tools available to automate the design of a general datapath structure, most of which is done manually......

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Nike's Software Architecture and Infrastructure: Enabling Integrated Solutions for Gigahertz Designs

May 06, 1999 | Nike Development, DT, Intel Corp.

This paper describes how Nike’s innovative architecture addresses the expanding requirements of Intel’s next-generation processor designs while enabling a design environment that is more productive than one built with the previous tool generation....

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Silicon Microelectronics Technology

May 06, 1999 | James T. Clemens

This paper begins with a historical review of that revolution, from the first integrated circuit to modern very large scale integration (VLSI) technology, and then reviews the development of present-day microelectronics manufacturing technology......

Publisher: Alcatel-Lucent

Alcatel-Lucent

Alcatel-Lucent- Enterprise Business Group is a world leader in the delivery of communications solutions for businesses, including contact center software, small/medium business telephony and IP addres

Calabasas, California, USA

Service Provider

The Future of Solid-State Electronics

May 06, 1999 | William F. Brinkman, Mark R. Pinto

This paper explores the direction in which IC technology is headed, highlights potential roadblocks and possible solutions, and discusses some of the physical considerations that could determine the ultimate limits of integration....

Publisher: Alcatel-Lucent

Alcatel-Lucent

Alcatel-Lucent- Enterprise Business Group is a world leader in the delivery of communications solutions for businesses, including contact center software, small/medium business telephony and IP addres

Calabasas, California, USA

Service Provider

The History of the Microprocessor

May 06, 1999 | Michael R. Betker, John S. Fernando, Shaun P. Whalen

Invented in 1971, the microprocessor evolved from the inventions of the transistor (1947) and the integrated circuit (1958). Essentially a computer on a chip, it is the most advanced application of the transistor. The influence of the microprocessor today is well known, but in 1971 the effect the microprocessor would have on everyday life was a vision beyond even those who created it. This paper presents the history of the microprocessor in the context of the technology and applications that drove its continued advancements....

Publisher: Alcatel-Lucent

Alcatel-Lucent

Alcatel-Lucent- Enterprise Business Group is a world leader in the delivery of communications solutions for businesses, including contact center software, small/medium business telephony and IP addres

Calabasas, California, USA

Service Provider

Key Steps to the Integrated Circuit

May 06, 1999 | Mark Melliar-Smith, Douglas E. Haggan, William W. Troutman

This paper traces the key steps that led to the invention of the integrated circuit (IC). The first part of this paper reviews the steady improvements in the performance and fabrication of single transistors in the decade after the Bell Labs breakthrough work in 1947. It sketches the various developments needed to produce a practical IC. In addition, the more advanced processes such as diffusion, oxide masking, photolithography, and epitaxy, which culminated in the planar process, are summarized....

Publisher: Alcatel-Lucent

Alcatel-Lucent

Alcatel-Lucent- Enterprise Business Group is a world leader in the delivery of communications solutions for businesses, including contact center software, small/medium business telephony and IP addres

Calabasas, California, USA

Service Provider

The Foundation of the Silicon Age

May 06, 1999 | Ian M. Ross

The invention of the transistor almost fifty years ago was one of the most important technical developments of this century. It has had profound impact on the way we live and the way we work. This paper describes the events that led to the invention of the point-contact transistor in December of 1947. It continues with the development of the theory of the junction transistor in early 1948 and the fabrication of the first grown-junction transistor in 1950....

Publisher: Alcatel-Lucent

Alcatel-Lucent

Alcatel-Lucent- Enterprise Business Group is a world leader in the delivery of communications solutions for businesses, including contact center software, small/medium business telephony and IP addres

Calabasas, California, USA

Service Provider

The Thermal Side of 64-Bit Processing

May 06, 1999 | Christopher Chapman, Aavid Thermal Products, Inc.

The newest workstations and servers, targeting computationally-intensive applications and large-scale database management, use 64-bit microprocessors and provide the next generation of computing power. ...

Publisher: Aavid Thermalloy, LLC

Aavid Thermalloy, LLC

For nearly 50 years, Aavid has been the world leader in thermal management solutions.

Laconia, New Hampshire, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Thermal Management of Electrolytic Capacitors

May 06, 1999 | Christopher Soule, Aavid Thermal Products, Inc.

Input voltage capacitors are typically the parts that fail first in a high power circuit. Today's requirements for increasingly smaller packages is driving high component densities in power systems, as in all systems. As the package size... ...

Publisher: Aavid Thermalloy, LLC

Aavid Thermalloy, LLC

For nearly 50 years, Aavid has been the world leader in thermal management solutions.

Laconia, New Hampshire, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Thermal Engineering Overview.

May 06, 1999 | Craig Johnston, Gary Kuzmin, Aavid Engineering, Inc.

The present problem with cooling microprocessors is a relatively new issue -- about 4 years old. It stems from the collision of two conflicting trends -- end-user desire for more powerful microprocessors to run the next generation software, and the equally strong demand for smaller, more mobile computer form factors. With each, the introduction of faster next-generation semiconductors aimed at improving computing power, heat concentration problems increase....

Publisher: Aavid Thermalloy, LLC

Aavid Thermalloy, LLC

For nearly 50 years, Aavid has been the world leader in thermal management solutions.

Laconia, New Hampshire, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Miniaturization of Cooling Solutions

May 06, 1999 | Christopher Chapman, Aavid Thermal Products, Inc.

The market's demand for increasingly powerful products, in smaller and smaller packaging, creates a cooling problem. Integrated circuit (IC) lifetime is dependent upon its operating temperature, creating a trade-off situation: either you enlarge the package to accept additional cooling, or you sacrifice IC lifetime....

Publisher: Aavid Thermalloy, LLC

Aavid Thermalloy, LLC

For nearly 50 years, Aavid has been the world leader in thermal management solutions.

Laconia, New Hampshire, USA

Manufacturer of Components

The Basics of Package/Device Cooling

May 06, 1999 | Christopher Chapman, Aavid Thermal Products, Inc.

The most reliable and well-designed electronic device can malfunction or fail if it overheats. Considering thermal issues early in the design process results in a thermally conscious system layout and minimizes costs through the use of passive cooling and off-the-shelf components. When thermal issues are left until completion of the design, the only remaining solution may be a costly custom heat sink that requires all the space available. Incorporating a heat sink or a fan into a product after it is fully developed can be expensive, and still may not provide sufficient cooling of the device. ...

Publisher: Aavid Thermalloy, LLC

Aavid Thermalloy, LLC

For nearly 50 years, Aavid has been the world leader in thermal management solutions.

Laconia, New Hampshire, USA

Manufacturer of Components

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Used SMT machines