Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Papers and articles related to SMT, PCB & EMS industry.


  • Europlacer SMT Pick & Place Machines
  • Reflow Ovens
  • Precision, fluid dispensing systems for low volume, high mix, R&D, and high volume 24x7 production
  • Electronics manufacturing training materials - IPC, solder
  • PCB Rework Tools
828 SMT / PCB Technical Articles

Guide for the Design of Semiconductor Equipment to Meet Voltage Sag Immunity Standards

Aug 05, 1999 | Mark Stephens, Dennis Johnson, John Soward, Jim Ammenheuser

This document summarizes the finding of testing to determine the immunity of semiconductor equipment to voltage sag events. Based in part on the findings, global standards have been adopted to define voltage sag immunity requirements for semiconductor equipment......

Publisher: SEMATECH

SEMATECH

An association of member companies cooperating on research in key areas of semiconductor technology, with a strong focus on thin-film photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing.

Albany, New York, USA

Association, Non-Profit

Evaluating Automated Wafer Measurement Instruments

Aug 05, 1999 | Steven A. Eastman

This document demonstrates a sequential process of evaluating automated wafer instruments and discusses why this approach is useful for studying instruments that have automation features such as loading and focusing mechanisms. The methodology specifies a series of experiments consisting of two or more capability studies followed by a stability study. Each experiment achieves a separate goal, yet combines with the others in providing information needed to assess the usefulness of the instrument....

Publisher: SEMATECH

SEMATECH

An association of member companies cooperating on research in key areas of semiconductor technology, with a strong focus on thin-film photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing.

Albany, New York, USA

Association, Non-Profit

Guidelines for Manufacturing Equipment Reference Manuals

Aug 05, 1999 | Victoria J. Pruett, SEMI/SEMATECH; Julian Serda, Advanced Micro Devices; Darin Shifley, Applied Materials, Inc.

This document provides suggested standard contents for equipment reference manuals for semiconductor process equipment. It includes a generic and detailed outline for equipment manuals, with major sections on installing, operating, controlling, and integrating process equipment....

Publisher: SEMATECH

SEMATECH

An association of member companies cooperating on research in key areas of semiconductor technology, with a strong focus on thin-film photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing.

Albany, New York, USA

Association, Non-Profit

Properties and Performance Of Hybrid Aluminium Electrolytic / Electrochemical Capacitors

Aug 05, 1999 | John R. Miller, JME, Inc. & David A. Evans, Evans Company

Test data was recently presented for a hybrid electrolytic/ electrochemical capacitor having sintered tantalum anodes and RuO2 cathodes. A 50-V, 18-mF capacitor of this design had electrical performance that was comparable to an advanced aluminum electrolytic capacitor but with only one-tenth the volume and just one-half the mass...

Publisher: Evans Findings

Evans Findings

Evans is the world's largest producer of deep drawn tantalum parts. Evans produces precision high volume drawn shells, metal stampings, eyelets and ferrules. Capabilities include In-House Engineering, Tool Design and Construction.

East Providence, Rhode Island, USA

Component Preparation

Thermal Management of Hybrid Electronic Devices

Jul 21, 1999 | Barry Ritchie, Jamie Serensen

Thermal management is a growing challenge in the electronics industry. As the overall size of electronic devices grows smaller, the enclosed electronic assemblies operate at higher frequencies and generate more heat....

Publisher: Henkel Electronic Materials

Henkel Electronic Materials

Henkel is a manufacturer of materials for PCB and component assembly. The materials include Loctite adhesives, Multicore soldering products, Hysol encaps and underfills, and Power Devices thermal phase change pads.

Irvine, California, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material

The Effect of Solder Mask And Surface Mount Adhesive Types on a PCB Manufacturing Process.

Jul 21, 1999 | James A. Serenson Jr., Steven Marongelli

A high volume manufacturer of printed circuit boards (PCBs) had attempted for many years to locate an adhesive that was robust enough to meet their manufacturing needs. This proved to be a challenge because they needed the adhesive to accommodate a wide range of different dispensing equipment and board designs. The two key performance criteria required from the adhesive were dispensability and adhesion......

Publisher: Henkel Electronic Materials

Henkel Electronic Materials

Henkel is a manufacturer of materials for PCB and component assembly. The materials include Loctite adhesives, Multicore soldering products, Hysol encaps and underfills, and Power Devices thermal phase change pads.

Irvine, California, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material

Reliability Considerations of Electrically Conductive Adhesives.

Jul 21, 1999 | Darryl J. Small

Isotropic conductive adhesives are typically silver filled epoxy resins. Electronics assemblers have evaluated these materials for a variety of unique interconnect applications. The goal is a conductive polymer that exhibits similar reliability and performance to traditional solder while offering the benefits of a polymer structure such as low temperature processing and good thermal stability as well as the ability to bond a variety of substrates....

Publisher: Henkel Electronic Materials

Henkel Electronic Materials

Henkel is a manufacturer of materials for PCB and component assembly. The materials include Loctite adhesives, Multicore soldering products, Hysol encaps and underfills, and Power Devices thermal phase change pads.

Irvine, California, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material

Effects of Tg and CTE on Semiconductor Encapsulants

Jul 21, 1999 | Dr. Mark M. Konarski

As the role of direct-chip-attachment increases in the electronics industry, the reliability and performance of COB packaging materials becomes an increasing concern. Although many factors influence component reliability, the biggest determinants of performance are often the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the encapsulant or underfill. This paper discusses exactly what these properties are, how they are measured, and why they are important to device-reliability....

Publisher: Henkel Electronic Materials

Henkel Electronic Materials

Henkel is a manufacturer of materials for PCB and component assembly. The materials include Loctite adhesives, Multicore soldering products, Hysol encaps and underfills, and Power Devices thermal phase change pads.

Irvine, California, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material

Pre-Compliance Testing the Conducted Line Emissions of DC Supplied Circuits

Jul 20, 1999 | Paul Lee, Director of Engineering, Murata Power Solutions

It's quite common for a power supply (PSU) designer to work with a circuit designer to realize a system design compliant with international EMC regulations. PSU designers will be well aware of the requirement of the power supply to provide clean DC voltage and not disturb the AC mains voltage. However, they may not have any idea of the noise that can potentially be introduced to the mains through the PSU by the target circuit. Likewise, the circuit designers (digital or analogue) may not know what attenuation the PSU will provide....

Publisher: Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd.

Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd.

Murata is a leading company involved in the manufacturing of ceramic electronic components with an overwhelming share worldwide in ceramic filters, high frequency parts, and sensors.

Kyoto, Japan

Manufacturer of Components, Components/Substrates

Parallel SmartSpice: Fast and Accurate Circuit Simulation Finally Available

Jul 20, 1999 | Dr. Mounir Hahad

Circuit simulation is a necessary everyday tool to circuit designers who need to constantly verify and debug their circuits during the design process. As engineers face larger, more complex designs and tighter project schedules, fast SPICE simulation with no loss in accuracy has become a necessity. Simulation indeed accounts for a large portion of the time spent in the design and optimization of a new circuit......

Publisher: Silvaco

Silvaco

Silvaco is a supplier of TCAD software and a major supplier of EDA software for circuit simulation and design of analog, mixed-signal and RF integrated circuits.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Software Manufacturer

The Best Way to Clean Water-Soluble Fluxes

Jul 20, 1999 | Rick Roney

One logical approach to eliminating chloroflurocarbons is to use water-soluble solder pastes. For years, electronic assembly houses have used aqueous cleaning for removing the water-soluble fluxes of the wave soldering operation. In fact, aqueous cleaningof assemblies bas been studied and characterized extensively. Obviously, a "drop-in" solder paste that could be cleaned in the same aqueous cleaner would eliminate many of the headaches associated with qualifymg an entirely new cleaning process......

Publisher: Benchmark Electronics

Benchmark Electronics

Provider of electronics contract manufacturing services and integrated engineering design and test services.

Huntsville, Alabama, USA

Manufacturer of Assembled PCBs, Design, Contract Manufacturer, Service Provider

How to Select a Heat Sink

Jul 20, 1999 | Seri Lee, Advanced Thermal Engineering, Aavid Thermal Technologies, Inc.

With the increase in heat dissipation from microelectronic devices and the reduction in overall form factors, thermal management bmomes a more and more important element of electronic product design. Both the performance reliability and life expectancy of electronic equipment are inversely related to the component temperature of the equipment......

Publisher: Aavid Thermalloy, LLC

Aavid Thermalloy, LLC

For nearly 50 years, Aavid has been the world leader in thermal management solutions.

Laconia, New Hampshire, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Circuits Cost Cutting Tips

Jul 20, 1999 | Murrietta Circuits

What affects the price of boards? Number of layers: Limit the number of layers as much as possible. If higher quantities are anticipated, spend the extra time and money in engineering to minimize layer count.......

Publisher: Murrietta Circuits

Murrietta Circuits

A turnkey supplier of Electronic Manufacturing Services with a specialization in pcb design, pcb assembly, pcb manufacturing, pcb prototype.

Anaheim, California, USA

Manufacturer of Assembled PCBs, Assembly, Design, Contract Manufacturer, Service Provider

Simple, Effective Process Control in Wave Soldering

Jun 23, 1999 | Chrys Shea

This paper outlines the harmful effects of out-of-control process parameters and describes methods of measuring and tracking them to keep them in control. It addresses all critical variables of wave soldering: flux deposition, preheat application, conveyor speed, solder temperature and solder contact time....

Publisher: Siemens Corporation

Siemens Corporation

Siemens Corporation is a U.S. subsidiary of Siemens AG, a global powerhouse in electronics and electrical engineering, operating in the industry, energy, healthcare, and infrastructure & cities sectors.

Washington, District of Columbia, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment

Assembly Process Development for Chip-Scale and Chip-Size μBGA™

May 09, 1999 | Vern Solberg.

This paper will review chip-scale and chip-size package variations, solder alloy options, furnish guidelines for solder stencil development and outline the actual processes used to successfully produce SMT assemblies utilizing CSP technology. ...

Publisher: Tessera Technologies

Tessera Technologies

Tessera is focused on miniaturization technologies and has licensed its chip packaging technology to numerous semiconductor manufacturers, including Intel and Samsung Electronics.

San Jose, California, USA

Component Packaging

A Study of Lead-Free Solder Alloys

May 09, 1999 | Karl F. Seelig.

With the ongoing concern regarding environmental pollutants, Iead is being targeted in the electronic assembly arena. This paper highlights lead-free solders and the different combinations of elemental makeups. ...

Publisher: AIM Solder

AIM Solder

AIM is a leading global manufacturer of tin-lead and lead-free solder assembly materials for the electronics industry.

Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

Soldering Faster At Lower Temperatures: A Performance Comparison

May 09, 1999 | Doug Wilkerson, Technical Services Manager.

Studies and tests of comparative soldering iron thermal performance at low temperatures - Metcal direct power soldering technology compared to conventional stored energy soldering irons from leading manufacturers. ...

Publisher: Metcal

Metcal

Manufacturer of high-performance precision rework systems for the electronics bench. Product lines include: Hand Soldering and Desoldering, Convection Rework products, Fume Extraction and Fluid Dispensing tools.

Cypress, California, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Adhesives/Dispensing, Repair/Rework, Soldering

Hand Soldering, Electrical Overstress, and Electrostatic Discharge

May 09, 1999 | Ron LaValley, Edwin Oh

This paper will give the reader a general understanding of EOS and ESD phenomena. It specifically addresses hand soldering's role in EOS and ESD and how to protect against and test for potential problems. It discusses how Metcal Systems address EOS and ESD concerns and how they differ from conventional soldering systems....

Publisher: Metcal

Metcal

Manufacturer of high-performance precision rework systems for the electronics bench. Product lines include: Hand Soldering and Desoldering, Convection Rework products, Fume Extraction and Fluid Dispensing tools.

Cypress, California, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Adhesives/Dispensing, Repair/Rework, Soldering

Extending Soldering Iron Tip Life

May 09, 1999 | Metcal

This Technical Note discusses the construction of solder tips, the various failure modes associated with tip plating (cracking, wear, corrosion, and dewetting), how to diagnose those failure modes, and specific practices that can be taken to minimize or eliminate each one....

Publisher: Metcal

Metcal

Manufacturer of high-performance precision rework systems for the electronics bench. Product lines include: Hand Soldering and Desoldering, Convection Rework products, Fume Extraction and Fluid Dispensing tools.

Cypress, California, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Adhesives/Dispensing, Repair/Rework, Soldering

Surface Mount Rework Techniques

May 09, 1999 | Brian Moylan

This Technical Note outlines, step by step, the easiest ways to remove and replace surface mounted devices, using the lowest possible temperatures. This document discusses the following topics: Removal and replacement of discrete and passive components (capacitors, resistors, SOTs), Removal of two-sided components (SOICs, SOJs, TSOPs), Removal of quad components (PLCCs, QFPs), Replacement of quad components including fine-pitched devices. ...

Publisher: Metcal

Metcal

Manufacturer of high-performance precision rework systems for the electronics bench. Product lines include: Hand Soldering and Desoldering, Convection Rework products, Fume Extraction and Fluid Dispensing tools.

Cypress, California, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Adhesives/Dispensing, Repair/Rework, Soldering

Managing the transition on a global scale -- changing the cleaning agent means changes to equipment, processes, process control specifications and standards.

May 09, 1999 | William G. Kenyon, Sr. Research Associate

The production of electronics began with hand soldering, followed by manual cleaning, which reached its peak during the NASA program. Each step in the process tended to be considered on a stand alone basis, without thought being given to the preceding and following steps. Since each step had its own set of specifications, this led to a "patchwork" approach to overall quality....

Publisher: DuPont

DuPont

World's most dynamic science company, creating sustainable solutions for a better, safer and healthier life.

Wilmington, Delaware, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Components/Substrates, Laminates

Manufacturing Considerations When Implementing Voc-Free Flux Technology

May 07, 1999 | David Scheiner, Senior Technical Service Engineer Kester

In 1990 the United States Environmental Protection Agency Issued the Clean Air Act. The Clean Air Act and subsequent amendments are designed to limit the use of chemicals that contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The document goes into great detail setting limits for allowable VOC emissions for different industries....

Publisher: Kester

Kester

A leading global supplier of assembly materials to the electronic assembly, component and microelectronic marketplaces.

Itasca, Illinois, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

SMT Process Recommendations Defect Minimization Methods for a No-Clean SMT Process

May 07, 1999 | Kurt Rajewski

Key competitive advantages can be obtained through the minimization of process defects and disruptions. In today's electronic manufacturing processes there are many variables to optimize. By gaining an understanding of what the defects are, and where they come from, is a key step in the process towards defect free/six sigma manufacturing. In the last decade, Surface Mount Technology processes have been slowly converting towards the No-Clean philosophy. This new trend has spawned new processing issues which need to be addressed. This paper will investigate solutions to current problems in the processing of No-Clean SMT processes....

Publisher: Kester

Kester

A leading global supplier of assembly materials to the electronic assembly, component and microelectronic marketplaces.

Itasca, Illinois, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

Soldering to Gold Over Nickel Surfaces

May 07, 1999 | Dennis Bernier

There are many things that can go wrong when soldering to gold plate over nickel surfaces. First of all, we know that gold and solder are not good friends, as any time solder comes into contact with gold, something seems to go wrong. Either the solder bonds to the gold and eventually pulls off as the tin and gold cross-migrate, leaving voids; or the solder completely removes the gold and is expected to bond to the metal which was under the gold....

Publisher: Kester

Kester

A leading global supplier of assembly materials to the electronic assembly, component and microelectronic marketplaces.

Itasca, Illinois, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

Characterization of No Clean Solderpaste Residues: The Relationship to In-Circuit Testing

May 07, 1999 | Merlin Kister, Kester Solder

Many manufacturers have now completed the conversion to no clean solder paste. Many factors governed this initial conversion, among those being cosmetics, solder ability, and process ability. In circuit testing or probing through no clean solder paste residues has topically not been a major factor in the conversion decision for several reasons. Due to board design, solder paste was only used on one side of the board and not subjected to testing......

Publisher: Kester

Kester

A leading global supplier of assembly materials to the electronic assembly, component and microelectronic marketplaces.

Itasca, Illinois, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

The Nature of White Residue on Printed Circuit Assemblies

May 07, 1999 | Dennis F. Bernier, Vice President, Research & Development, Kester Solder

White residue remaining after cleaning circuit board assemblies can be caused by a variety of chemicals and reactions. Rosin and water-soluble fluxes, circuit board resins and epoxies, component materials and other contamination all contribute to this complex chemistry. This paper discusses many of the sources of the residues that seem to be an ever-increasing occurrence....

Publisher: Kester

Kester

A leading global supplier of assembly materials to the electronic assembly, component and microelectronic marketplaces.

Itasca, Illinois, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

The Effect Of Metallic Impurities On The Wetting Properties Of Solder

May 07, 1999 | Dennis Bernier, Kester Solder Company

This paper is a report of a study made to determine the maximum allowable impurities in solder used for wave soldering applications. This report concludes with a list of impurities compiled from actual analyses of solder which caused production problems. A list of recommended maximum allowable impurities will assist in establishing reliable quality controls on the purity level of the solder in a wave soldering machine....

Publisher: Kester

Kester

A leading global supplier of assembly materials to the electronic assembly, component and microelectronic marketplaces.

Itasca, Illinois, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

Implementation of a High-Quality Dolby* Digital Decoder Using MMX™ Technology

May 07, 1999 | James C. Abel, Michael A. Julier

Software decoding of Dolby Digital allows it to become a baseline capability on the PC, with greater flexibility than a hardware approach. Intel's MMX™ technology provides instructions that can significantly speed up the execution of the Dolby Digital decoder, freeing up the processor to perform other tasks such as video decoding and/or audio enhancement. Intel has worked closely with Dolby Laboratories to define an implementation of Dolby Digital based on MMX technology that has achieved Dolby's certification of quality....

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

MMX™ Microarchitecture of Pentium® Processors With MMX Technology and Pentium® II Microprocessors

May 07, 1999 | Michael Kagan, Simcha Gochman, Doron Orenstien, Derrick Lin

The MMX™ technology is an extension to the Intel Architecture (IA) aimed at boosting the performance of multimedia applications. This technology is the most significant IA extension since the introduction of the Intel386™ microprocessor. The challenge in implementing this technology came from retrofitting the new functionality into existing Pentium® and Pentium® Pro processor designs....

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

MMX™ Technology Architecture Overview

May 07, 1999 | Millind Mittal, Alex Peleg, Uri Weiser

Media (video, audio, graphics, communication) applications present a unique opportunity for performance boost via use of Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) techniques. While several of the computeintensive parts of media applications benefit from SIMD techniques, a significant portion of the code still is best suited for general purpose instruction set architectures. MMX™ technology extends the Intel Architecture (IA), the industry's leading general purpose processor architecture, to provide the benefits of SIMD for media applications....

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

A PROM Element Based on Salicide Agglomeration of Poly Fuses in a CMOS Logic Process

May 07, 1999 | Intel Corp.

A novel programmable element has been developed and evaluated for state of the art CMOS processes. This element is based on agglomeration of tVarious aspects of these programmable devices including characterization and optimization of physical and electrical aspects of the element, programming yield, and reliability have been studied. Development ofhe Ti-silicide layer on top of poly fuses. ...

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Redundancy and High-Volume Manufacturing Methods

May 07, 1999 | Christopher W. Hampson, MD6 Cache Product Engineering, Hillsboro, OR, Intel Corp.

This paper will describe practical aspects of a redundancy implementation on a high-volume cache memory product. Topics covered include various aspects of redundancy from a design and product engineering perspective; and present test development methods for future product implementations....

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Redundancy Yield Model for SRAMS

May 07, 1999 | Nermine H. Ramadan, STTD Integration/Yield, Hillsboro, OR, Intel Corp.

This paper describes a model developed to calculate number of redundant good die per wafer. A block redundancy scheme is used here, where the entire defective memory subarray is replaced by a redundant element. A formula is derived to calculate the amount of improvement expected after redundancy. This improvement is given in terms of the ratio of the overall good die per wafer to the original good die per wafer after considering some key factors....

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Intel StrataFlash™ Memory Development and Implementation

May 07, 1999 | Al Fazio, Mark Bauer

This paper will review the device physics governing the operation of the industry standard ETOX™ flash memory cell and show how it is ideally suited for multiple bit per cell storage, through its storage of electrons on an electrically isolated floating gate and through its direct access to the memory cell....

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Intel StrataFlash™ Memory Technology Overview

May 07, 1999 | Greg Atwood, Al Fazio, Duane Mills, Bill Reaves

The Intel StrataFlashTM memory technology represents a cost breakthrough for flash memory devices by enabling the storage of two bits of data in a single flash memory transistor. This paper will discuss the evolution of the two bit/cell technology from conception to production....

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Illinois-Intel Multithreading Library: Multithreading Support for Intel Architecture Based Multiprocessor Systems

May 07, 1999 | Milind Girkar, Mohammad R. Haghighat, Paul Grey, Hideki Saito, Nicholas J. Stavrakos, Constantine D. Polychronopoulos

Powerful desktop multiprocessor systems based on the Intel Architecture (iA) offer a formidable alternative to traditional scientific/engineering workstations for commercial application developers at an attractive costperformance ratio. However, the lack of adequate compiler and runtime library support for multithreading and parallel processing on Windows NT* makes it difficult or impossible to fully exploit the performance advantage of these multiprocessor systems. In this paper we describe the design, development, and initial performance results of the Illinois-Intel Multithreading Library (IML), which aims at providing an efficient and powerful (in terms of types of parallelism it supports) API for multithreaded application developers....

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Scalable Platform Services on the Intel TFLOPS Supercomputer

May 07, 1999 | Bradley Mitchell; Server Software Technology

This paper describes Scalable Platform Services (SPS)- a collection of software providing the manageability solution for Intel's latest parallel processing supercomputer. ...

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Achieving Large Scale Parallelism Through Operating System Resource Management on the Intel TFLOPS Supercomputer

May 07, 1999 | Sharad Garg, Robert Godley, Richard Griffiths, Andrew Pfiffer, Terry Prickett, David Robboy, Stan Smith, T. Mack Stallcup, Stephan Zeisset.

From the point of view of an operating system, a computer is managed and optimized in terms of the application programming model and the management of system resources. For the TFLOPS system, the problem is to manage and optimize large scale parallelism. This paper looks at the management in terms of three key topics: memory management, communication, and input/output....

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

The Performance of the Intel TFLOPS Supercomputer

May 07, 1999 | Greg Henry, Pat Fay, Ben Cole, Timothy G. Mattson.

The purpose of building a supercomputer is to provide superior performance on real applications. In this paper, we describe the performance of the Intel TFLOPS Supercomputer starting at the lowest level with a detailed investigation of the Pentium® Pro processor and the supporting memory subsystem....

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

An Overview of the Intel TFLOPS Supercomputer

May 07, 1999 | Timothy G. Mattson, Greg Henry

In this paper, we give an overview of the ASCI Option Red Supercomputer. The motivation for building this supercomputer is presented and the hardware and software views of the machine are described in detail. We also briefly discuss what it is like.....

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Computer Vision Face Tracking For Use in a Perceptual User Interface

May 07, 1999 | Gary R. Bradski; Microcomputer Research Lab

As a first step towards a perceptual user interface, a computer vision color tracking algorithm is developed and applied towards tracking human faces. Computer vision algorithms that are intended to form part of a perceptual user interface must be fast and efficient. They must be able to track in real time yet not absorb a major share of computational resources: other tasks must be able to run while the visual interface is being used. The new algorithm developed here is based on a robust nonparametric technique for climbing density gradients to find the mode (peak) of probability distributions called the mean shift algorithm....

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

An Overview of Advanced Failure Analysis Techniques for Pentium® and Pentium® Pro Microprocessors

May 07, 1999 | Yeoh Eng Hong, Lim Seong Leong, Wong Yik Choong, Lock Choon Hou, Mahmud Adnan; Intel Penang Microprocessor Failure Analysis Department, Malaysia

Failure analysis (FA) is one of the key competencies in Intel. It enables very rapid achievement of world class manufacturing standards, resulting in excellent microprocessor time-to-market performance. This paper discusses the evolution of FA techniques from one generation of microprocessors to another....

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

EUV Lithography -The Successor to Optical Lithography?

May 07, 1999 | John E. Bjorkholm

This paper discusses the basic concepts and current state of development of EUV lithography (EUVL), a relatively new form of lithography that uses extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation with a wavelength in the range of 10 to 14 nanometer (nm) to carry out projection imaging. Currently, and for the last several decades, optical projection lithography has been the lithographic technique used in the high-volume manufacture of integrated circuits. It is widely anticipated that improvements in this technology will allow it to remain the semiconductor industry's workhorse through the 100 nm generation of devices. However, some time around the year 2005, so-called Next-Generation Lithographies will be required. ...

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

MOS Scaling: Transistor Challenges for the 21st Century

May 07, 1999 | Scott Thompson, Paul Packan, Mark Bohr

To enable transistor scaling into the 21st century, new solutions such as high dielectric constaConventional scaling of gate oxide thickness, source/drain extension (SDE), junction depths, and gate lengths have enabled MOS gate dimensions to be reduced from 10mm in the 1970’s to a present day size of 0.1mm. To enable transistor scaling into the 21st century, new solutions such as high dielectric constant materials for gate insulation and shallow, ultra low resistivity junctions need to be developed. In this paper, for the first time, key scaling limits are quantified for MOS transistorsnt materials for gate insulation and shallow, ultra low resistivity junctions need to be developed....

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

The Quality and Reliability of Intel's Quarter Micron Process

May 07, 1999 | Krishna Seshan, Timothy J. Maloney, Kenneth J. Wu

This paper describes how the quality and reliability of Intel's products are designed, measured, modeled, and maintained. Four main reliability topics: ESD protection, electromigration, gate oxide wearout, and the modeling and management of mechanical stresses are discussed. Based on an analysis of the reliability implications of device scaling, we show how these four topics are of prime importance to component reliability......

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Why Wide Fine Pitch Pads?

May 07, 1999 | Rick Lathrop, Heraeus SMT Technical Services

Fine pitch SMT devices, although certainly not new, present more of an assembly processing challenge than 50 mil pitch devices. In fact it seems that the finer the pitch the more difficult or narrower the process window becomes. Besides the pitch of the leads being less on fine pitch devices narrower pad width on the board is typical. With fine pitch designs the board fabrication process is also stressed in that the strip of mask between the pads is designed narrower, the alignment of the mask to copper becomes more critical...

Publisher: Heraeus

Heraeus

We design and manufacture SMT assembly materials.

W. Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

Stereolithography and Simultaneous Engineering Speed Products to Market

May 07, 1999 | AMP Incorporated

Stereolithography is a handy tool not only for speeding a design to market but also in giving customers an early edge. By allowing a form-and-fit sample to be quickly made from a computer model, stereolithography coupled with simultaneous engineering allows customers to see product models early in the design cycle. And if a picture is worth a thousand words, what's a tangible sample worth?...

Publisher: TE Connectivity

TE Connectivity

A technology leader in the world's fastest growing markets, helping connect power, data and signal in everything from automotive and aerospace to broadband communications, consumer, energy and industrial applications.

Schaffhausen, Switzerland

Manufacturer of Components, IPC Standards Certification Center, Training Provider

Solder Volumes for Through-Hole Reflow-Compatible Connectors

May 06, 1999 | AMP Incorporated

The success of surface-mount technology has not meant the end of through-hole connectors. For reasons ranging from availability to user concerns over reliability, through-hole connectors remain widely used. ...

Publisher: TE Connectivity

TE Connectivity

A technology leader in the world's fastest growing markets, helping connect power, data and signal in everything from automotive and aerospace to broadband communications, consumer, energy and industrial applications.

Schaffhausen, Switzerland

Manufacturer of Components, IPC Standards Certification Center, Training Provider

Keeping Tin Solderable

May 06, 1999 | AMP Incorporated

Tin plating on a component lead makes its soldering easier. Everybody knows that. Not so well known is that tin plating has shelf life -- its ability to be easily soldered degrades over time. the speed and severity of degradation depends both on storage conditions and on the plating itself......

Publisher: TE Connectivity

TE Connectivity

A technology leader in the world's fastest growing markets, helping connect power, data and signal in everything from automotive and aerospace to broadband communications, consumer, energy and industrial applications.

Schaffhausen, Switzerland

Manufacturer of Components, IPC Standards Certification Center, Training Provider

Specifying Current for the Real World

May 06, 1999 | TE Connectivity

To help the designer set the appropriate current level, AMP has developed a new method of specifying current-carrying capacity. This new method takes into account the various application factors that influence current rating. ...

Publisher: TE Connectivity

TE Connectivity

A technology leader in the world's fastest growing markets, helping connect power, data and signal in everything from automotive and aerospace to broadband communications, consumer, energy and industrial applications.

Schaffhausen, Switzerland

Manufacturer of Components, IPC Standards Certification Center, Training Provider

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Fluid Dispense Pump Integration