Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Papers and articles related to SMT, PCB & EMS industry.


  • Europlacer SMT Pick & Place Machines
  • Reflow Ovens
  • Precision, fluid dispensing systems for low volume, high mix, R&D, and high volume 24x7 production
  • Electronics manufacturing training materials - IPC, solder
  • PCB Rework Tools

888 SMT / PCB Assembly Related Technical Articles

Electroformed vs. Laser-cut: A Stencil Performance Study

Jan 11, 2013 | By Michael R. Burgess and William E. Coleman, Ph.D., Photo Stencil

There have been claims in the industry that laser-cut electroformed nickel foil blanks provide stencil print performance comparable to electroformed stencils. A study was established to measure the quantitative differences in performance between the two during an independent lab study....

Publisher: Photo Stencil LLC

Photo Stencil LLC

Photo Stencil provides high-performance stencils, squeegee blades, thick film and metal mask screens and tooling for the surface mount technology (SMT) assembly, solar, and semiconductor industries.

Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA

Manufacturer of Components

The Application of Spherical Bend Testing to Predict Safe Working Manufacturing Process Strains

Jan 09, 2013 | John McMahon P.Eng, Brian Gray P.Eng,

The increased temperatures associated with lead free processes have produced significant challenges for PWB laminates. Newly developed laminates have different curing processes, are commonly filled with ceramic particles or micro-clays and can have higher Tg values. These changes designed to reduce Z-axis expansion and improve the materials resistance to thermal excursions through primary attach and rework operations have also produced harder resin systems with reduced fracture toughness....

Publisher: Celestica Corporation

Celestica Corporation

A multinational electronics manufacturing services (EMS) company.

Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Manufacturer of Assembled PCBs, IPC Standards Certification Center, Training Provider

The Conditions and Solutions of Lead-free Hand Soldering

Jan 05, 2013 | Huang Xin

More and more countries legislate to forbib lead usage in solder material. However, the lead-free solder wire has higher melting point and soldering temperature, increase soldering iron temperature may damage the PCB or components. How to solve this problem?...

Publisher: Leisto Industrial Co., Limited

Leisto Industrial Co., Limited

Manufacturer and supplier of replacement soldering tips for soldering irons and soldering robots, automatic tape dispenser, automatic label dispenser, screw feeder, etc.

Shenzhen, China

Manufacturer of Assembled PCBs, Repair/Rework, Manufacturer's Rep

Investigation of Pad Cratering in Large Flip-Chip BGA using Acoustic Emission

Jan 03, 2013 | Anurag Bansal, Cherif Guirguis, Kuo-Chuan Liu

Electronics assemblies with large flip-chip BGA packages can be prone to either pad cratering or brittle intermetallic (IMC) failures under excessive PCB bending. Pad cratering cracks are not detected by electrical testing or non-destructive inspection methods, yet they pose a long term reliability risk since the cracks may propagate under subsequent loads to cause electrical failure. Since the initiation of pad cratering does not result in an instantaneous electrical signature, detecting the onset of this failure has been challenging. An acoustic emission methodology was recently developed by the authors to detect the onset of pad cratering. The instantaneous release of elastic energy associated with the initiation of an internal crack, i.e., Acoustic Emission (AE), can be monitored to accurately determine the onset of both pad cratering and brittle intermetallic (IMC) failures....

Publisher: Cisco Systems, Inc.

Cisco Systems, Inc.

Cisco designs, manufactures, and sells Internet protocol (IP)-based networking and other products related to the communications and IT industry and provide services associated with these products.

San Jose, CA, USA

Manufacturer's Rep

Advances in Conductive Inks across Multiple Applications and Deposition Platforms

Dec 27, 2012 | Scott E. Gordon, Jay R. Dorfman, Daniel Kirk, Kerry Adams

Printed Electronics is generally defined as the patterning of electronic materials, in solution form, onto flexible substrates, omitting any use of the photolithography, etching, and plating steps commonly found within the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) industry. The origins of printed electronics go back to the 1960s, and close variants of several original applications and market segments remain active today. Through the 1980s and 1990s Printed Electronic applications based on Membrane Touch Switch and Electroluminescent lighting technologies became common, and the screen printed electronic materials used then have formed the building blocks for many of the current and emerging technologies and applications... First published in the 2012 IPC APEX EXPO technical conference proceedings....

Publisher: DuPont

DuPont

World's most dynamic science company, creating sustainable solutions for a better, safer and healthier life.

Wilmington, Delaware, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Components/Substrates, Laminates

Types of flexible printed circuit board

Dec 26, 2012 | Grace Yang

①Single side The basic flexible printed circuit board is used of substrate of single side pcb materials and coated coverlay after finishing printed. ②Double sided That is made of substrates of double sided printed circuit board with double surface coated coverlays after finishing printed. ③Single copper foil with double coverlays Single copper foil coated different coverlays with double surface after finishing printed. ④Air gap Laminating two single printed circuit board together with no glue and bare design to meet high flexibility requirements. ⑤Multilayer That is designed for three and above circuit layers by laminating single side printed circuit board or double sided printed circuit board. ⑥COF IC chips and electronic components are installed on the flexible circuit board directly. ⑦Rigid-Flexible PCB Combined to rigid PCB with supporting and flexible PCB with high flexibility. ...

Publisher: Everest PCB equipment Co.,Ltd

Everest PCB equipment Co.,Ltd

EVEREST is a manufacturer of PCB equipment in China.We are focus on providing the best products and services for our clients. After making efforts for several years, we are in the lead leve

Beijing, China

Contract Manufacturer

Principles of Analog In-Circuit Testing

Dec 26, 2012 | Anthony J. Suto, Teradyne

Passive components including resistors, capacitors, inductors, and circuit-protection devices compose the highest percentage of all devices that are populated on today’s PCB assemblies. However, the successful isolation and testing of these components during ICT is perhaps the most challenging and the least understood of all modern-day validation practices....

Publisher: Teradyne

Teradyne

Teradyne is a leading supplier of Automatic Test Equipment used to test semiconductors, wireless products, data storage and complex electronic systems which serve consumer, communications, industrial and government customers.

North Reading, Massachusetts, USA

Inspection, Test Services

Advantages of Bismuth-based Alloys for Low Temperature Pb-Free Soldering and Rework

Dec 20, 2012 | Brook Sandy, Edward Briggs and Ronald Lasky, Ph.D.

The increased function of personal electronic devices, such as mobile phones and personal music devices, has driven the need for smaller and smaller active and passive components. This trend toward miniaturization, occurring at the same time as the conversion to RoHS-compliant lead-free assembly, has been a considerable challenge to the electronics assembly industry. The main reason for this is the higher reflow process temperatures required for Pb-free assembly. These higher temperatures can thermally damage the PCB and the components. In addition, the higher reflow temperatures can negatively affect the solder joint quality, especially when coupled with the smaller paste deposits required for these smaller components. If additional thermal processing is required, the risk increases even more. First Published at SMTA's International Conference on Soldering and Reliability in Toronto, May 2011...

Publisher: Indium Corporation

Indium Corporation

Solder pastes, solder preforms, solder spheres, soldering fluxes, electrically-conductive adhesives. All alloys: tin-lead, lead-free, indium alloys, and more.

Utica, New York, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

Throughput vs. Wet-Out Area Study for Package on Package (PoP) Underfill Dispensing

Dec 17, 2012 | Brad Perkins, Jared Wilburn

Package on Package (PoP) has become a relatively common component being used in mobile electronics as it allows for saving space in the board layout due to the 3D package layout. To insure device reliability through drop tests and thermal cycling as well as for protecting proprietary programming of the device either one or both interconnect layers are typically underfilled. When underfill is applied to a PoP, or any component for that matter, there is a requirement that the board layout is such that there is room for an underfill reservoir so that the underfill material does not come in contact with surrounding components. The preferred method to dispensing the underfill material is through a jetting process that minimizes the wet out area of the fluid reservoir compared to traditional needle dispensing. To further minimize the wet out area multiple passes are used so that the material required to underfill the component is not dispensed at once requiring a greater wet out area. Dispensing the underfill material in multiple passes is an effective way to reduce the wet out area and decrease the distance that surrounding components can be placed, however, this comes with a process compromise of additional processing time in the underfill dispenser. The purpose of this paper is to provide insight to the inverse relationship that exists between the wet out area of the underfill reservoir and the production time for the underfill process....

Publisher: Nordson ASYMTEK

Nordson ASYMTEK

A leader in automated fluid dispensing, jetting and conformal coating. Products range from benchtop dispensers and stand-alone dispensing workstations to fully automated, in-line conveyorized systems.

Carlsbad, California, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Adhesives/Dispensing, Assembly, Component Packaging

Investigation of Device Damage Due to Electrical Testing

Dec 14, 2012 | Rosa Croughwell and John McNeill, Worcester Polytechnic Institute

This paper examines the potential failure mechanisms that can damage modern lowvoltage CMOS devices and their relationship to electrical testing. Failure mechanisms such as electrostatic discharge (ESD), CMOS latch-up, and transistor gate oxide degradation can occur as a result of electrical over-voltage stress (EOS). In this paper, EOS due to electrical testing is examined and an experiment is conducted using pulsed voltage waveforms corresponding to conditions encountered during in-circuit electrical testing. Experimental results indicate a correlation between amplitude and duration of the pulse waveform and device degradation due to one or more of the failure mechanisms....

Publisher: Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Worcester Polytechnic Institute

WPI's academic departments offer more than 50 undergraduate and graduate degree programs in science, engineering, technology, management, the social sciences, and the humanities and arts, leading to the BA, BS, MS, ME, MBA and PhD

Worcester, Massachusetts, USA

School

Issues and Challenges of Testing Modern Low Voltage Devices with Conventional In-Circuit Testers

Dec 14, 2012 | Alan J. Albee

The popularity of low voltage technologies has grown significantly over the last decade as semiconductor device manufacturers have moved to satisfy market demands for more powerful products, smaller packaging, and longer battery life. By shrinking the size of the features they etch into semiconductor dice, IC manufacturers achieve lower costs, while improving speed and building in more functionality. However, this move toward smaller features has lead to lower breakdown voltages and increased opportunities for component overstress and false failures during in-circuit test....

Publisher: Teradyne

Teradyne

Teradyne is a leading supplier of Automatic Test Equipment used to test semiconductors, wireless products, data storage and complex electronic systems which serve consumer, communications, industrial and government customers.

North Reading, Massachusetts, USA

Inspection, Test Services

Designing PCBs for Test and Inspection

Dec 14, 2012 | Michael J. Smith, Teradyne

This article provides practical and affordable Design-for- Test (DFT) and Design-for-Inspection (DFI) methods that will have a positive impact on product costs, yield, reliability, and time-to-market. The properties of testability (including controllability and observability) will be analysed as they relate to analogue and digital design rules and their cause/effect, as well as the electrical and physical characteristics of proper PCB design....

Publisher: Teradyne

Teradyne

Teradyne is a leading supplier of Automatic Test Equipment used to test semiconductors, wireless products, data storage and complex electronic systems which serve consumer, communications, industrial and government customers.

North Reading, Massachusetts, USA

Inspection, Test Services

Characterization of No Clean Solderpaste Residues: The Relationship to In-Circuit Testing

Dec 14, 2012 | Merlin Kister

This paper will describe the various residues that are now available in the market with their compatibility to in-circuit testing. This paper will also cover a new paste development that has been made to completely address the issue of probe testing for all manufacturers no matter what their testing requirements are....

Publisher:

Influence of Pd Thickness on Micro Void Formation of Solder Joints in ENEPIG Surface Finish

Dec 13, 2012 | Dong-Won Shin, Jin-Woo Heo, Yeonseop Yu, Jong-Soo Yoo, Pyoung-Woo Cheon, Seon-Hee Lee

First published in the 2012 IPC APEX EXPO technical conference proceedings. We investigated the micro-void formation of solder joints after reliability tests such as preconditioning (precon) and thermal cycle (TC) by varying the thickness of Palladium (Pd) in Electroless Nickel / Electroless Palladium / Immersion Gold (ENEPIG) surface finish. We used lead-free solder of Sn-1.2Ag-0.5Cu-Ni (LF35). We found multiple micro-voids of less than 10 µm line up within or above the intermetallic compound (IMC) layer. The number of micro-voids increased with the palladium (Pd) layer thickness. Our results revealed that the micro-void formation should be related to (Pd, Ni)Sn4 phase resulted from thick Pd layer. We propose that micro-voids may form due to either entrapping of volatile gas by (Pd, Ni)Sn4 or creeping of (Pd, Ni)Sn4....

Publisher: Samsung Electro-Mechanics

Samsung Electro-Mechanics

Samsung Electro-Mechanics produces high-tech integrated components of electronics and mechanical devices for all electrical devices.

SUWON, South Korea

Marketing Agency

How to improve reliability of PCB equipments

Dec 12, 2012 | Grace Yang

When we designed the PCB equipments, we should try to simplify crcuit and structure design that on the premise of ensuring the equipments to meet the technology and performance, In modern society, modules design (MD)is a effective measures to improved the pcb equipment reliability. The system were made up simpleness functions of modules to reducing the complexity of the design. Both domestic and abroad, a large number of facts have proved this point, MD was a best choice for PCB equipment design....

Publisher: Everest PCB equipment Co.,Ltd

Everest PCB equipment Co.,Ltd

EVEREST is a manufacturer of PCB equipment in China.We are focus on providing the best products and services for our clients. After making efforts for several years, we are in the lead leve

Beijing, China

Contract Manufacturer

Void Detection in Large Solder Joints of Integrated Power Electronics

Dec 06, 2012 | Patrick Schuchardt

Inspection of integrated power electronics equals sophisticated test task. X-ray inspection based on 2D / 2.5D principles not utilizable. Full 3D inspection with adapted image capturing and reconstruction is necessary for test task.... First published in the 2012 IPC APEX EXPO technical conference proceedings. ...

Publisher: GOEPEL Electronic

GOEPEL Electronic

Vendor of systems for Automated Optical Inspection (AOI), 3D X-Ray Inspection (AXI)and 3D solder paste inspection (SPI). The company's inline and stand-alone AOI systems won several "Best in Test Awards"

Jena, Germany

Inspection

Overcoming Logistic, Economic and Technical Challenges to Implementing Functional Test in High Mix / High Volume Production Environments

Nov 29, 2012 | Craig T. Pynn

First published in the 2012 IPC APEX EXPO technical conference proceedings... Functional circuit test (FCT) of circuit boards and end products in a high volume (>1000 units per day) production environment presents challenging technical, logistic and cost obstacles that are usually more complex than those encountered at the inspection (automated optical inspection) and the manufacturing process test step (in-circuit test)....

Publisher: SiFO Technologies

SiFO Technologies

SiFO Technology bridges the gap between OEMs and their Chinese contract manufacturers by providing in-circuit and functional test fixtures, programs, testers and services.

Concord, California, USA

Contract Manufacturer, Service Provider

Effective Qualification of Soldering Iron Performance Criteria

Nov 27, 2012 | Metcal

Quality managers and line supervisors are routinely tasked with the responsibility of ensuring that the hand soldering process is under control. The method most commonly used is to measure the idle tip temperature of the soldering station and to use this reading as a benchmark of system compliance. This method, although popular is now being seriously questioned by many industry professionals as being irrelevant in qualifying true system process control.

This document aims to present a practical view of what factors are important for successful hand soldering and to suggest an alternative procedure for qualification that is simple, repeatable and directly related to the effectiveness of the soldering station....

Publisher: Metcal

Metcal

Manufacturer of high-performance precision rework systems for the electronics bench. Product lines include: Hand Soldering and Desoldering, Convection Rework products, Fume Extraction and Fluid Dispensing tools.

Cypress, California, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Adhesives/Dispensing, Repair/Rework, Soldering

The Industry Requirement for 2D and 3D Inspection Technology in a Single AOI Platform

Nov 21, 2012 | Brian D'Amico

The continuing evolution toward advanced miniature packaging has led to ever increasing PCB density and complexity. As the manufacturing process becomes progressively more complicated, there is an ever increasing probability for defects to occur on finished PCB assemblies. For years the Automated Optical Inspection (AOI) industry has relied solely upon two-dimensional (2D) inspection principles to test the quality of workmanship on electronic assemblies. While advancements in conventional 2D optical inspection have made this technology suitable for detecting such defects as missing components, wrong components, proper component orientation, insufficient solder, and solder bridges; there is an inherent limitation in the ability to inspect for co-planarity of ultra-miniature chips, leaded device, BGA and LED packages....

Publisher: MIRTEC Corporation

MIRTEC Corporation

Global supplier of Automated Optical Inspection and Solder Paste Inspection Systems to the Electronics Manufacturing Industry.

Oxford, Connecticut, USA

Inspection

Precision Cleaning in 21st Century: New Solvent with Low Global Warming Potential

Nov 15, 2012 | Rajat Basu, Ryan Hulse, Kane Cook, Diana Mercier

First published in the 2012 IPC APEX EXPO technical conference proceedings. As we progress in the 21st century, electronics manufacturing will need more and more precision. Parts will get more complex since more components have to be assembled in smaller spaces. Circuit boards and other electronic assemblies will become more densely populated; spacings between components will be shorter. This will require precision manufacturing and efficient cleaning during and post manufacturing. In addition, with population and technology progressing, larger amount of greenhouse gases will be emitted resulting in higher global warming. Intense research effort is going on to develop new generation of chemicals to address both cleaning and global warming issues. Low global warming solutions in refrigeration and as insulating agents are already in the marketplace....

Publisher: Honeywell International

Honeywell International

Honeywell is a Fortune 100 company that invents and manufactures technologies to address tough challenges linked to global macrotrends such as safety, security, and energy.

Morristown, New Jersey, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Increase Your Process Control and Lower Cost of Ownership

Nov 12, 2012 | Ed Zamborsky, Eastern Territory Sales Manager, OK International/Metcal

With consumers constantly looking for lower prices on their technology products and manufacturers trying to squeak out higher margins from their production lines, the need for process control and lower overhead costs have become even more important. One sector that is often overlooked is the hand soldering area of the factory. Many factories have been struggling with antiquated soldering systems for years. In some cases they are trying to make their investment in stations last much longer than they were designed for, or they are falsely trying to recoup their original investment ‐ all at the cost of higher operating expenses or even worse, reduced operator thru‐put....

Publisher: Metcal

Metcal

Manufacturer of high-performance precision rework systems for the electronics bench. Product lines include: Hand Soldering and Desoldering, Convection Rework products, Fume Extraction and Fluid Dispensing tools.

Cypress, California, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Adhesives/Dispensing, Repair/Rework, Soldering

Elemental Compositions of Over Two Dozen Cell Phones

Nov 08, 2012 | Bev Christian, Irina Romanova, Laura Turbini

first published in the 2012 IPC APEX EXPO technical conference proceedings. Twenty-nine different cells phones have been disassembled, ground up, dissolved and analyzed for elemental content, mainly for information about the metals present in the phones, but also for some metalloids and non-metals. The paper will discuss the method used and propose possible sources in the telephones for certain elements of interest and the reasons for the interest in some of the elements....

Publisher: Research In Motion

Research In Motion

Research In Motion (RIM) is a leading designer, manufacturer and marketer of innovative wireless solutions for the worldwide mobile communications market.

Waterloo, Ontario, Canada

OEM

Polyphenylene Ether Macromonomers. XI. Use in Non-Epoxy Printed Wiring Boards

Nov 01, 2012 | Edward N. Peters, Scott M. Fisher, Hua Guo

First published in the 2012 IPC APEX EXPO technical conference proceedings. The continuous progression toward portable, high frequency microelectronic systems has placed high demands on material performance, notably low dielectric constants (Dk), low loss tangent (Df), low moisture uptake, and good thermal stability. Epoxy resins are the workhorses of the electronic industry. Significant performance enhancements have been obtained through the use of PPE telechelic macromonomers with epoxy resins. However, there is a ceiling on the performance obtainable from epoxy-based resins. Therefore, non-epoxy based dielectric materials are used to fulfill the need for higher performance....

Publisher: SABIC

SABIC

A world leader in providing engineering thermoplastic material solutions. In more than 35 countries worldwide, we help redefine the way OEMs design -- from concept to reality.

Pittsfield, Massachusetts, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Laminates

Stencil Printing of Small Apertures

Oct 25, 2012 | William E. Coleman Ph.D.

First published in the 2012 IPC APEX EXPO technical conference proceedings. This paper will examine stencil technologies (including Laser and Electroform), Aperture Wall coatings (including Nickel-Teflon coatings and Nano-coatings), and how these parameters influence paste transfer for miniature devices with Area Ratios less than the standard recommended lower limit of .5. A matrix of print tests will be utilized to compare paste transfer and measure the effectiveness of the different stencil configurations. Area Ratios ranging from .32 to .68 will be investigated....

Publisher: Photo Stencil LLC

Photo Stencil LLC

Photo Stencil provides high-performance stencils, squeegee blades, thick film and metal mask screens and tooling for the surface mount technology (SMT) assembly, solar, and semiconductor industries.

Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Lead-free SMT Soldering Defects How to Prevent Them

Oct 23, 2012 | Peter Biocca, Senior Development Engineer

Tin-Silver-Copper alloys are the primary choice for lead-free SMT assembly. Although there are other options available such as alloys containing bismuth or indium and other elements, tin-silver-copper solders, also known as SAC alloys are by far the most popular. They are used by approximately 65% of users, as last surveyed by Soldertec in 2003....

Publisher: Kester

Kester

A leading global supplier of assembly materials to the electronic assembly, component and microelectronic marketplaces.

Itasca, Illinois, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

The Morphology Evolution and Voiding of Solder Joints on QFN Central Pads with a Ni/Au Finish

Oct 18, 2012 | Julie Silk, Jianbiao Pan, Mike Powers

First published in the 2012 IPC APEX EXPO technical conference proceedings. In this paper, we report on a comprehensive study regarding the morphology evolution and voiding of SnAgCu solder joints on the central pad of two different packages – QFN and an Agilent package called TOPS – on PCBs with a Ni/Au surface finish....

Publisher: Agilent Technologies, Inc.

Agilent Technologies, Inc.

World's premier measurement company, providing the critical tools and technologies that sense, measure, and interpret the physical and biological world.

Loveland, Colorado, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment

Wire Bonding and Soldering on Enepig and Enep Surface Finishes with Pure Pd-Layers

Oct 11, 2012 | Mustafa Özkök, Joe McGurran, Dieter Metzger, Hugh Roberts

First published in the 2012 IPC APEX EXPO technical conference proceedings. This paper shows the benefits by using a pure palladium Layer in the ENEPIG (Electroless Nickel, Electroless Palladium, Immersion Gold) and ENEP (Electroless Nickel, Electroless P...

Publisher: Atotech

Atotech

One of the world's leading suppliers of integrated production systems, chemistry, equipment, know-how and service for electroplating, semiconductor and printed circuit board manufacturing.

Berlin, Germany

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Manufacturer of Components, Components/Substrates

Reliability of BGA Solder Joints after Re-Balling Process

Oct 04, 2012 | M.H. Biglaria, A. Nazariana, R. Denteneera, M. Biglari, Jra, A.A. Kodentsov

First published in the 2012 IPC APEX EXPO technical conference proceedings... Due to the obsolescence of SnPb BGA components, electronics manufacturers that use SnPb solder paste either have to use lead-free BGAs and adjust the reflow process or re-ball t...

Publisher: Mat-tech

Mat-tech

Mat-tech is your specialist in high-tech soldering & brazing. Whether it's developing a new product or improving an existing product, we provide the perfect joint.

Eindhoven, Noord-Brabant, Netherlands

Soldering, Service Provider

A Novel Material for High Layer Count and High Reliability Printed Circuit Boards

Sep 27, 2012 | Jie Wan, Junqi Tang, Xianping Zeng

First published in the 2012 IPC APEX EXPO technical conference proceedings. Over the past few years a new family of laminate systems has been developed to face the increasing physical demands of withstanding Pb-free soldering processes used in the assembl...

Publisher: Shengyi Technology Co., Ltd.

Shengyi Technology Co., Ltd.

Shengyi is the biggest manufacturer of copper clad laminates in China. Its products are used for making single side, double side, and multilayer printed circuits boards.

Dongguan, Guangdong, China

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Laminates

Evaluation of Laminates in Pb-free HASL Process and Pb-free Assembly Environment

Sep 20, 2012 | Khaw Mei Ming, Andrey Lee

First published in the 2012 IPC APEX EXPO technical conference proceedings. An evaluation of four FR4 laminates in commonly used stack-ups was done to determine their survivability for the Pb-free HASL process followed by a worst case Pb-free manufacturin...

Publisher: Agilent Technologies, Inc.

Agilent Technologies, Inc.

World's premier measurement company, providing the critical tools and technologies that sense, measure, and interpret the physical and biological world.

Loveland, Colorado, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment

Thermal Cycle Reliability Study of Vapor Phase BGA Solder Joints

Sep 13, 2012 | Ward Gatza; Agilent Technologies, Inc., Tom Evans; Thomas C. Evans Consulting

First published in the 2012 IPC APEX EXPO technical conference proceedings. Prior to committing production boards to vapor phase soldering, we performed an evaluation to assess reliability and evaluate the vacuum soldering option. The reliability of vapor...

Publisher: Agilent Technologies, Inc.

Agilent Technologies, Inc.

World's premier measurement company, providing the critical tools and technologies that sense, measure, and interpret the physical and biological world.

Loveland, Colorado, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment

Pad Cratering - The Invisible Threat to the Electronics Industry

Sep 06, 2012 | Chris Hunrath

First published in the 2012 IPC APEX EXPO technical conference proceedings. Pad Cratering opens circuits. This occurs when the resin crack (fracture) migrates through a copper trace or via. This happens at assembly, in service or during handling. When com...

Publisher: Integral Technology, Inc

Integral Technology, Inc

Manufacturer and distributor of HDI electronic materials for the printed circuit board industry

Lake Forest, California, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Laminates

Inclusion Voiding in Gull Wing Solder Joints

Aug 30, 2012 | T.L. Lewis, C.O. Ndiaye, J.R. Wilcox

This paper provides definitions of the different voiding types encountered in Gull Wing solder joint geometries. It further provides corresponding reliability data that support some level of inclusion voiding in these solder joints and identifies the final criteria being applied for certain IBM Server applications. Such acceptance criteria can be applied using various available x-ray inspection techniques on a production or sample basis. The bulk of supporting data to date has been gathered through RoHS server exempt SnPb eutectic soldering operations but it is expected to provide a reasonable baseline for pending Pb-free solder applications....

Publisher: IBM Corporation

IBM Corporation

International Business Machines Corporation is a multinational technology. IBM manufactures computer hardware and software, offers infrastructure, hosting and consulting services.

Armonk, New York, USA

Other, Software Manufacturer

The Regulatory and Environment Status of Tetrabromobisphenol-A In Printed Wiring Boards

Aug 23, 2012 | Susan D. Landry

First published in the 2012 IPC APEX EXPO technical conference proceedings. Tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) is the predominant flame retardant used in rigid FR-4 printed wiring boards (PWB). In this application, the TBBPA is fully reacted into the epoxy res...

Publisher: Albemarle Corporation

Albemarle Corporation

Albemarle is a leading specialty chemical company providing innovative chemistry solutions to customers in over 100 countries around the world.

Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA

Components/Substrates

Effects of Tin and Copper Nanotexturization on Tin Whisker Formation

Aug 16, 2012 | David M. Lee, Lesly A. Piñol, PhD

First published in the 2012 IPC APEX EXPO technical conference proceedings. The physical mechanisms behind tin whisker formation in pure tin (Sn) films continue to elude the microelectronics industry. Despite modest advances in whisker mitigation techniqu...

Publisher: Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory

Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory

The Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) is a not-for-profit center for engineering, research, and development.

Laurel, Maryland, USA

Association, Non-Profit, Research Institute/Laboratory

Corrosion Resistance of Different PCB Surface Finishes in Harsh Environments

Aug 09, 2012 | Mustafa Özkök, Joe McGurran, Hugh Roberts. Kenneth Lee, Guenter Heinz

First published in the 2012 IPC APEX EXPO technical conference proceedings. Corrosion resistance is becoming one of the most important topics in the electronics industry. Corrosion results in field failures and huge losses, which annually total several bi...

Publisher: Atotech

Atotech

One of the world's leading suppliers of integrated production systems, chemistry, equipment, know-how and service for electroplating, semiconductor and printed circuit board manufacturing.

Berlin, Germany

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Manufacturer of Components, Components/Substrates

An Investigation of Whisker Growth on Tin Coated Wire and Braid

Aug 02, 2012 | Dave Hillman, Tim Pearson, Thomas Lesniewski

First published in the 2012 IPC APEX EXPO technical conference proceedings. Pure tin is a common finish for copper hook up wire, coaxial cable, ground braid and harness assemblies used on electronic assemblies. Historically there have been fewer reports o...

Publisher: Rockwell Collins

Rockwell Collins

Rockwell Collins (NYSE: COL) is a pioneer in the development and deployment of innovative communication and aviation electronic solutions for both commercial and government applications.

Cedar Rapids, Iowa, USA

Manufacturer of Assembled PCBs, Other

Minimizing Voiding In QFN Packages Using Solder Preforms

Jul 27, 2012 | Seth J. Homer, Ronald C. Lasky, PhD, PE

First published in the 2012 IPC APEX EXPO technical conference proceedings. The focus of this paper will quantify the preform requirements and process adjustments needed to use preforms in a standard SMT process. In addition, experimental data showing vo...

Publisher: Indium Corporation

Indium Corporation

Solder pastes, solder preforms, solder spheres, soldering fluxes, electrically-conductive adhesives. All alloys: tin-lead, lead-free, indium alloys, and more.

Utica, New York, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

New Developments in PCB Laminates

Jul 19, 2012 | Dean Hattula, John Coonrod

First published in the 2012 IPC APEX EXPO technical conference proceedings. With the ever accelerating demands in printed circuit board (PCB) design, the choices of advanced laminate materials have become fewer and fewer. The trends continue towards high...

Publisher: Rogers Corporation, Advanced Circuit Materials Division

Rogers Corporation, Advanced Circuit Materials Division

A global technology leader in the development of high performance printed circuit materials for use in markets, including portable communications, communications infrastructure, aerospace and defense.

Chandler, Arizona, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Laminates

Thermal Characteristics of PCB Laminates used in High Frequency Applications

Jul 11, 2012 | John Coonrod

As technology advances, understanding thermal management issues of high frequency PCB's increases. There are many different aspects to consider for PCB thermal management. This paper will investigate thermal management issues of high frequency PCB's as it...

Publisher: Rogers Corporation, Advanced Circuit Materials Division

Rogers Corporation, Advanced Circuit Materials Division

A global technology leader in the development of high performance printed circuit materials for use in markets, including portable communications, communications infrastructure, aerospace and defense.

Chandler, Arizona, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Laminates

Hot Nitrogen For Wave Soldering

Jul 05, 2012 | Laurent Coudurier, Fernand Heine, Didier Orlhac

First published in the 2012 IPC APEX EXPO technical conference proceedings. A new innovation for increasing quality & productivity of wave soldering machines....

Publisher: Air Liquide

Air Liquide

Air Liquide is the world leader in gases for industry, health and the environment. We produce air gases (oxygen, nitrogen, argon, rare gases, etc.) and many other gases, including hydrogen.

Paris, France

Other

A Study of PCB Insertion Loss Variation in Manufacturing Using a New Low Cost Metrology

Jun 27, 2012 | Chu-tien Chia, Richard Kunze, David Boggs, Margaret Cromley

First published in the 2012 IPC APEX EXPO technical conference proceedings. Signal integrity analysis has shown that printed circuit board (PCB) insertion loss is a key factor affecting high speed channel performance. Determining and controlling PCB inser...

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

The Relationship between Backward Compatible Assembly and Microstructure on the Thermal Fatigue Reliability of an Extremely Large Ball Grid Array

Jun 21, 2012 | Richard Coyle, Richard Popowich, Peter Read, and Debra Fleming - Alcatel-Lucent, Raiyo Aspandiar, Alan Donaldson, Stephen Tisdale, and Vasu Vasudevan - Intel Corporation, Iulia Muntele, Robert Kinyanjui - Sanmina-SCI Corporation

First published in the 2012 IPC APEX EXPO technical conference proceedings. Most high reliability electronic equipment producers continue to manufacture and support tin-lead (SnPb) electronic products despite the increasing trend for design and conversion...

Publisher: Alcatel-Lucent

Alcatel-Lucent

Alcatel-Lucent- Enterprise Business Group is a world leader in the delivery of communications solutions for businesses, including contact center software, small/medium business telephony and IP addres

Calabasas, California, USA

Service Provider

Novel Probing Concepts for Mass-Production Tests: Design and Challenges

Jun 15, 2012 | Matthias Zapatka, Dipl.-Ing.(FH) ; Otmar Fischer, Dipl.-Ing. (FH) ; Sven Nocher

First published in the 2012 IPC APEX EXPO technical conference proceedings. The world of spring-loaded test probes and special probes for in-circuit and functional tests have grown tremendously over the past few years. Ever increasing demands for electro ...

Publisher: INGUN Pruefmittelbau GmbH

INGUN Pruefmittelbau GmbH

We are a globally operating company for Testing Equipment Manufacturing and offer am unsurpassed choice of Test Probes and Test Fixtures.

Konstanz , Germany

OEM

Scaling LCA with IPC-175x

Jun 07, 2012 | Jørgen Vos, Industry Members (volunteers)

First published in the 2012 IPC APEX EXPO technical conference proceedings. IPC-175x Intent: To establish a standard data exchange format that will facilitate, improve, and secure data transfer between all members of a supply chain. ...

Publisher: Association Connecting Electronics Industries (IPC)

Association Connecting Electronics Industries (IPC)

IPC is the trade association for the printed wiring board and electronics assembly industries.

Bannockburn, Illinois, USA

Association, Non-Profit, Events Organizer

Management of your company's PLC automation risk.

Jun 01, 2012 | Don Fitchett

PLCs are the brains of your operation. When the PLC (Programmable Logic Controllers) is not functioning properly, lines shut down, plants shutdown, even city bridges and water stations could cease to operate. Thousands to millions could be lost by one li...

Publisher: Business Industrial Network

Business Industrial Network

Offers training software and videos. Also on site training and seminars that qualify for CEUs to maintenance, engineering and management professionals.

St. Louis, Missouri, USA

Consultant, Publication or Online Resource, Service Provider, Software Manufacturer, Training Provider

Recession survival tips on how and why not to cut training.

Jun 01, 2012 | Don Fitchett

Recession survival tips on how and why not to cut training. ... About the methods for US Manufacturing Industry to adjust for the knowledge vacuum caused by retiring baby boomers with training, while dealing with tight training budgets during a recessio...

Publisher: Business Industrial Network

Business Industrial Network

Offers training software and videos. Also on site training and seminars that qualify for CEUs to maintenance, engineering and management professionals.

St. Louis, Missouri, USA

Consultant, Publication or Online Resource, Service Provider, Software Manufacturer, Training Provider

PLC and SCADA Networking Security Solutions

May 31, 2012 | Don Fitchett

Industrial network security solutions essential to today's PLC - SCADA security. Lack of security on an industrial network could cause a serious threat to the system, to the personnel involved in it, in fact, production machines networks without proper se...

Publisher: Business Industrial Network

Business Industrial Network

Offers training software and videos. Also on site training and seminars that qualify for CEUs to maintenance, engineering and management professionals.

St. Louis, Missouri, USA

Consultant, Publication or Online Resource, Service Provider, Software Manufacturer, Training Provider

Current Strategies for Mitigating Counterfeit Components

May 31, 2012 | Rick Stanton

ProSkill Consulting and Training Group “Current Strategies for Mitigating Counterfeit Components” By: Rick Stanton - PRO-STD-001 Course Director/Corporate VP of Quality It’s well known that counterfeiting has been linked to organized c...

Publisher: ProSkill Consulting and Training Group (ProSkill CTG)

ProSkill Consulting and Training Group (ProSkill CTG)

ProSkill CTG offers Counterfeit Component Detection Techniques. Learn how to detect fake/used electronic components using our PRO-STD-001 Inspections Standard. Military,Medical,and Commercial Markets.

Melbourne, FL, Florida, USA

Training Provider

SMT Manufacturability and Reliability in PCB Cavities

May 31, 2012 | Markus Leitgeb, Christopher Michael Ryder

First published in the 2012 IPC APEX EXPO technical conference proceedings. Considering technological advances in multi-depth cavities in the PCB manufacturing industry, various subtopics have materialized regarding the processing and application of such ...

Publisher: AT&S

AT&S

AT&S is currently Europe’s largest printed circuit board manufacturer and one of the market leaders in high-end printed circuit board technology.

Leoben, Austria

Contract Manufacturer

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