Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Papers and articles related to SMT, PCB & EMS industry.


  • Europlacer SMT Pick & Place Machines
  • Reflow Ovens
  • Precision, fluid dispensing systems for low volume, high mix, R&D, and high volume 24x7 production
  • Electronics manufacturing training materials - IPC, solder
  • PCB Rework Tools

853 SMT / PCB Assembly Related Technical Articles

Novel Approaches for Minimizing Pad Cratering

Oct 29, 2015 | Chen Xu, Yunhu Lin; Alcatel-Lucent, Yuan Zeng, Pericles A. Kondos; Unovis-Solutions.

With the electronic industry moving towards lead-free assembly, traditional SnPb-compatible laminates need to be replaced with lead-free compatible laminates that can withstand the higher reflow temperature required by lead-free solders. Lead-free compatible laminates with improved heat resistance have been developed to meet this challenge but they are typically more brittle than SnPb laminates causing some to be more susceptible to pad cratering. In this paper, two novel approaches for minimizing pad cratering will be discussed. Preliminary results which validate the two approaches will also be presented....

Publisher: Alcatel-Lucent

Alcatel-Lucent

Alcatel-Lucent- Enterprise Business Group is a world leader in the delivery of communications solutions for businesses, including contact center software, small/medium business telephony and IP addres

Calabasas, California, USA

Service Provider

Tin Whisker Risk Management by Conformal Coating

Oct 22, 2015 | Linda Woody, William Fox; Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control

The objective of this study is to evaluate conformal coatings for mitigation of tin whisker growth. The conformal coatings chosen for the experiment are acrylic, polyurethane and parylene. Also included in this paper are tin whisker inspection results of tin-plated braiding and wire that was exposed to an environment of 50°C with 50% relative humidity for over five years....

Publisher: Lockheed Martin Corporation

Lockheed Martin Corporation

Lockheed Martin is a global security and aerospace company that employs about 112,000 people worldwide and is principally engaged in the research, design, development and manufacturing of advanced technology systems.

Bethesda, Maryland, USA

Other

Optimizing the Insulated Metal Substrate Application with Proper Material Selection and Circuit Fabrication

Oct 15, 2015 | Dave Sommervold, Chris Parker, Steve Taylor, Garry Wexler

The ever expanding growth in the use of insulated metal substrates (IMS) in power electronics requires a focus on material and mechanical configuration for each application. By optimizing the material makeup and printed board format, performance and reliability expectations can be further achieved. The thermal performance and electrical isolation needs are driven by the power requirements, but considerations of temperature range, mechanical durability and format, along with the physical package surrounding the substrate must also be managed. With a variety of material configurations and circuit format capabilities, the choices become a balancing of options to maximize performance and minimizing cost through Design For Manufacturability (DFM) in the circuit board fabrication. These challenges present the IMS printed board fabricator with material selections and fabrication processes unlike those for other printed board or ceramic applications....

Publisher: The Bergquist Company

The Bergquist Company

Bergquist, now a part of Henkel, supplies thermal-management solutions for electronic applications, serving a variety of industries ranging from automotive to consumer and industrial electronics as well as LED lighting.

Chanhassen, Minnesota, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material

Preparing for Increased Electrostatic Discharge Device Sensitivity

Oct 08, 2015 | Julian A. Montoya, Intel Corporation Hillsboro, Oregon

With the push for ever improving performance on semiconductor component I/O interfaces, semiconductor components are being driven into a realm which makes them more sensitive to electrostatic discharge, potentially increasing in sensitivity by 50% every 3-5 years. Today, the majority of modern day semiconductor components are being designed to meet 250Volts of charge device model sensitivity, and that could decrease to 125Volts in the next 3-5 years, and could again decrease to 50Volts-70Volts in the following 3-5 years. The entire electronics industry must prepare for this challenge....

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Printing of Solder Paste - A Quality Assurance Methodology

Oct 01, 2015 | Lars Bruno and Tord Johnson Ericsson AB and MTEK Consulting AB

Solder paste printing is known to be one of the most difficult processes to quality assure in electronic manufacturing. The challenge increases as the technology development moves toward a mix between large modules and small chip components on large and densely populated printed circuit boards. Having a process for quality assurance of the solder paste print is fast becoming a necessity.

This article describes a method to ensure quality secured data from both solder paste printers and inspection machines in electronic assembly manufacturing. This information should be used as feedback in order to improve the solder paste printing process....

Publisher: Ericsson AB

Ericsson AB

Ericsson AB manufactures and markets radio and television communication equipment. The company was formerly known as Ericsson Radio Systems AB. Ericsson AB (Sweden) operates as a subsidiary of Ericsson.

Stockholm, Sweden

Other

Gold Stud Bump Flip Chip Bonding on Molded Interconnect Devices

Sep 23, 2015 | Dick Pang, Weifeng Liu, Anwar Mohammed, Elissa Mckay, Teresita Villavert and Murad Kurwa

A molded interconnect device (MID) is an injection molded thermoplastic substrate which incorporates a conductive circuit pattern and integrates both mechanical and electrical functions. (...) Flip chip bonding of bare die on MID can be employed to fully utilize MID’s advantage in device miniaturization. Compared to the traditional soldering process, thermo-compression bonding with gold stud bumps provides a clear advantage in its fine pitch capability. However, challenges also exist. Few studies have been made on thermocompression bonding on MID substrate, accordingly little information is available on process optimization, material compatibility and bonding reliability. Unlike solder reflow, there is no solder involved and no “self-alignment,” therefore the thermo-compression bonding process is significantly more dependent on the capability of the machine for chip assembly alignment....

Publisher: Flex (Flextronics International)

Flex (Flextronics International)

Flextronics is a global full-service supplier of a full spectrum of value-added Electronic Manufacturing Services.

Singapore, Singapore

Design, Service Provider

Method for the Manufacture of an Aluminum Substrate PCB and its Advantages

Sep 17, 2015 | Joseph Fjelstad

RoHS legislated restrictions on the materials used in electronics manufacture have imparted significant challenges on the electronics industry since their introduction in 2006. The greatest impacts have been felt by the mandated elimination of lead from electronic solder followed by the demand for the elimination of haloids from flame retardants used in traditional PCB laminates. In the years which have followed the electronics industry has been beset with a host of new challenges in its effort to comply. Failure mechanisms, both new and old, have surfaced which demand solution and the industry suppliers and manufacturing technologists have worked diligently to remedy those vexing faults through the development of a wide range of new materials and equipment for both board manufacture and assembly, along with modifications to the processes used in the manufacture and assembly of printed circuit boards....

Publisher: Verdant Electronics

Verdant Electronics

Pioneers in the area of solderless assembly technology and originators of the OCCAM process. Developing IP for next and future generations of high reliability and better performing electronic products.

Seattle, Washington, USA

Assembly

New High-Performance Organophosphorus Flame Retardant

Sep 10, 2015 | Kimberly M. White, Ph.D., Daniel De Schryver, Ph.D., and Randy Chaya

A new non-halogen flame retardant has been developed and is useful for a variety of high performance applications. This non-reactive phosphorus-based material satisfies fire safety needs for a broad range of resins including epoxy, polyolefin, and polyamide. The combination of excellent flame retardant efficiency, high thermal stability and exceptional electrical properties is unique to this organophosphorus flame retardant and makes it a breakthrough technology for high speed, high frequency use in fast growing wireless and wired infrastructures. Resin performance data, including formulations with synergists, are presented in this paper....

Publisher: Albemarle Corporation

Albemarle Corporation

Albemarle is a leading specialty chemical company providing innovative chemistry solutions to customers in over 100 countries around the world.

Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA

Components/Substrates

Embedded Fibers Enhance Nano-Scale Interconnections

Sep 03, 2015 | V. Desmaris, S. Shafiee, A. Saleem, A. Johansson and P. Marcoux

While the density of chip-to-chip and chip-to-package component interconnections increases and their size decreases the ease of manufacture and the interconnection reliability are being reduced. This paper will introduce the use of embedded fibers in the interconnections as a means of addressing these issues....

Publisher: Smoltek AB

Smoltek AB

Smoltek offers a proprietary conductive nano-scale carbon technology tailored to support the future needs of the semiconductor industry.

Gothenburg, Sweden

Other

Adhesive Backed Plastic Stencils vs Mini Metal Stencils

Aug 27, 2015 | Bob Wettermann, MIT

Ever since there has been a widespread usage of surface mount parts, the trend of continued shrinkage of devices with ever finer pitches has continued to challenge PCB assemblers for the rework of same. Todays' pitches are commonly 0.5 to 0.4mm with packages of tiny outline sizes, 5 -10mm square, making the rework of such devices a challenge. In addition to the handling and inspection challenges comes the board density. Spacing to neighboring components continues to be compressed so the rework techniques should not damage neighboring components....

Publisher: BEST Inc.

BEST Inc.

BEST offers professional rework, repair and prototype builds of PCBs. Our experienced instructors teach professional soldering classes as we are an IPC certified training center.

Rolling Meadows, Illinois, USA

Repair/Rework, Soldering, IPC Standards Certification Center, Service Provider, Training Provider

Challenges for Step Stencils with Design Guidelines for Solder Paste Printing

Aug 25, 2015 | Carmina Läntzsch, Georg Kleemann

The stencil printing process is one of the most critical processes in the electronic production. Due to the requirement: "faster and smaller" it is necessary to place components with different paste volume close together without regard to solder paste printing. In our days it is no longer possible to control the solder paste volume only by adjustment of the aperture dimensions. The requirements of solder paste volumes for specific components are realized by different thicknesses of metal sheets in one stencil with so called step stencils. The step-down stencil is required when it is desirable to print fine-pitch devices using a thinner stencil foil, but print other devices using a thicker stencil foil.

The paper presents the innovative technology of step-up and step-down stencils in a laser cutting and laser welding process. The step-up/step-down stencil is a special development for the adjustment of solder paste quantity, fulfilling the needs of placement and soldering. This includes the laser cutting and laser welding process as well as the resulting stencil characteristics and the potential of the printing process....

Publisher: LaserJob

LaserJob

Founded in 1992, LaserJob specializes in laser-cut stencils for printed circuit boards used in electronic devices.

Fürstenfeldbruck, Germany

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

SELECT CONFORMAL COAT FORMULATION FOR PCB ENVIRONMENT

Aug 20, 2015 | Wes Noble

Temperature and Humidity on Selective Conformal Coating It is well known that selective conformal coating on printed circuit board (PCB) assemblies provides unparallel protection for PCB’s. Nevertheless, concentrated conditions of humidity, water, and high temperatures can have negative effects on the conformal coating itself causing it to fail and become inapt for its intended purpose. Taking this into consideration, it is prudent to choose the right type of conformal coating that best suits the application and environmental conditions under which an assembly is likely to undergo in use. The proper conformal coating will significantly reduce the likelihood of failure/rejection, saving both valuable time and money for any manufacturing process....

Publisher: ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

Manufacturer of Fluid Dispensing Equipment for Selective Conformal Coating, Potting, Encasulation & Underfill including Inspection, Conveying and Curing. Total Solution Fluid Dispensing & Conformal Cocating Process Lines.

Deer Park, Washington, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Adhesives/Dispensing, Inspection, Soldering, Turnkey

Implementing Robust Bead Probe Test Processes into Standard Pb-Free Assembly

Aug 20, 2015 | John McMahon P.Eng, Tom Blaszczyk, Peter Barber

Increasing system integration and component densities continue to significantly reduce the opportunity to access nets using standard test points. Over time the size of test points has been drastically reduced (as small as 0.5 mm in diameter) but current product design parameters have created space and access limitations that remove even the option for these test points. Many high speed signal lines have now been restricted to inner layers only. Where surface traces are still available for access, bead probe technology is an option that reduces test point space requirements as well as their effects on high speed nets and distributes mechanical loading away from BGA footprints enabling test access and reducing the risk of mechanical defects associated with the concentration of ICT spring forces under BGA devices.

Building on Celestica's previous work characterizing contact resistance associated with Pr-free compatible surface finishes and process chemistry; this paper will describe experimentation to define a robust process window for the implementation of bead probe and similar bump technology that is compatible with standard Pb-free assembly processes. Test Vehicle assembly process, test methods and "Design of Experiments" will be described. Bead Probe formation and deformation under use will also be presented along with selected results....

Publisher: Celestica Corporation

Celestica Corporation

A multinational electronics manufacturing services (EMS) company.

Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Manufacturer of Assembled PCBs, IPC Standards Certification Center, Training Provider

NON-CONTACT FLUID DISPENSING WITH PS-8200 JETTING VALVE

Aug 18, 2015 | Brian Stumm

Jetting Valve Technology Superior to Needle Dispensing Compared to traditional needle dispensing technology, jetting valve technology is the most effective method for quick and accurate fluid dispensing. Injection technology has many advantages, it provides a combination of high-speed, high quality and low cost production for fluid dispensing processes. Instead of putting focus on getting the application done, jet dispense technology focuses on performance, providing applications like underfill, potting and encapsulation with more precision than ever before. Improved Fluid Dispensing Speed and Accuracy Non-contact jetting valves offer a significant advantage over traditional needle dispense valves. Jetting Valve Dispenser precision reaches to 200µm with dot diameter or line width as small as 250µm and volumetric dispensing down to .0036µl. Minimum space between lines is 180µm and maximum fluid dispense speed is 200 dots/second. The following video illustrates quick, accurate fluid dispensing for an LED packaging application....

Publisher: ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

Manufacturer of Fluid Dispensing Equipment for Selective Conformal Coating, Potting, Encasulation & Underfill including Inspection, Conveying and Curing. Total Solution Fluid Dispensing & Conformal Cocating Process Lines.

Deer Park, Washington, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Adhesives/Dispensing, Inspection, Soldering, Turnkey

CONFORMAL COATING FOR WATER RESISTANT CIRCUIT ASSEMBLIES

Aug 18, 2015 | Brian Stumm

Why Selectively Conformal Coat the Electronic Assembly? Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are employed in a variety of products and devices, and this means that it might be necessary for your PCBs to be moisture resistant. It is important to choose the right type of conformal coating so you need not worry about the durability of your product. Fortunately, there are several options available that can help, and you can even use selective conformal coating robots to provide proper application of the coating....

Publisher: ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

Manufacturer of Fluid Dispensing Equipment for Selective Conformal Coating, Potting, Encasulation & Underfill including Inspection, Conveying and Curing. Total Solution Fluid Dispensing & Conformal Cocating Process Lines.

Deer Park, Washington, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Adhesives/Dispensing, Inspection, Soldering, Turnkey

ULTRAVIOLET (UV) CURING TECHNOLOGY

Aug 18, 2015 | Wes Noble

What is UV Curing? “Ultraviolet (UV) light is an electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 400 nm to 100 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.” (Source: Wikipedia). Ultraviolet or UV curing is used to create a photochemical reaction using high intensity Ultraviolet (UV) energy or “light” to quickly dry inks, adhesives or conformal coatings. Most materials cure with a UV wavelength around 350 ~ 400nm although some materials require UVC energy near 255nm. There are many advantages to using UV curing over other traditional methods of curing. Not only will it increase production speed, it assists in creating a better bond, and improves scratch and solvent resistance. When compared to other methods of curing, UV curing generates a more reliable cured product at a much higher rate of production in a considerably shorter period of time....

Publisher: ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

Manufacturer of Fluid Dispensing Equipment for Selective Conformal Coating, Potting, Encasulation & Underfill including Inspection, Conveying and Curing. Total Solution Fluid Dispensing & Conformal Cocating Process Lines.

Deer Park, Washington, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Adhesives/Dispensing, Inspection, Soldering, Turnkey

Improve Crimp Quality to Increase Productivity

Aug 17, 2015 | Pete Doyon, VP, Product Management, Schleuniger, Inc.

Since a high percentage of product failures can be traced to poor electrical connections, crimp quality is of paramount importance. There are many factors that come into play that affect crimp quality and knowing the relevant factors, and to what extent each factor affects the end result, will help to guide the process engineer towards achieving the best possible results. ...

Publisher: Schleuniger, Inc.

Schleuniger, Inc.

Schleuniger, Inc. is a leading manufacturer of wire processing equipment. Our innovative automatic and semi-automatic machines are designed to cut, strip, crimp and mark all types of wire and cable.

Manchester, New Hampshire, USA

Other

Pad Cratering Susceptibility Testing with Acoustic Emission

Aug 13, 2015 | Wong Boon San, Julie Silk; Agilent Technologies | Richard Nordstrom, Ph.D.; Acoustic Technology Group,

Pad cratering has become more prevalent with the switch to lead free solders and lead free compatible laminates. This mainly is due to the use of higher reflow temperature, stiffer Pb-free solder alloys, and the more brittle Pb-free compatible laminates. However, pad cratering is difficult to detect by monitoring electric resistance since pad cratering initiates before an electrical failure occurs.

Several methods have been developed to evaluate laminate materials' resistance to pad cratering. Pad-solder level tests include ball shear, ball pull and pin pull. The detailed methods for ball shear, ball pull, and pin pull testing are documented in an industry standard IPC-9708. Bansal, et al. proposed to use acoustic emission (AE) sensors to detect pad cratering during four-point bend test. Currently there is an industry-working group working on test guidelines for acoustic emission measurement during mechanical testing....

Publisher: Agilent Technologies, Inc.

Agilent Technologies, Inc.

World's premier measurement company, providing the critical tools and technologies that sense, measure, and interpret the physical and biological world.

Loveland, Colorado, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment

Enclosed Media Printing as an Alternative to Metal Blades

Aug 06, 2015 | Michael L. Martel

Fine pitch/fine feature solder paste printing in PCB assembly has become increasingly difficult as board geometries have become ever more compact. The printing process itself, traditionally the source of 70% of all assembly defects, finds its process window narrowing. The technology of metal blade squeegees, with the aid of new materials, understanding, and settings such as blade angle, has kept pace with all but the smallest applications, e.g., 200μ - .50 AR and 150μ - .375 AR, which have been pushing blade printing technology to its limits.

Enclosed media print head technology has existed, and has been under increasing development, as an alternative to metal squeegee blade printing. Until recently, the performance of enclosed print heads had been comparable to the very best metal squeegees, but advances in enclosed print media technology have now made it a superior alternative to squeegee blades in virtually all applications....

Publisher: Speedline Technologies, Inc.

Speedline Technologies, Inc.

Speedline Technologies serves the electronics assembly and semiconductor packaging industries with class-leading equipment, responsive support and unparalleled process knowledge.

Franklin, Massachusetts, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Adhesives/Dispensing, Cleaning, Screen Printing, Soldering

5 Axis Fluid Dispensing

Jul 31, 2015 | Brian Stumm

Technology is in constant change and circuit assembly is no different. It is becoming more and more advanced as needs change and demands for more capabilities increase. In order to meet these demands, equipment manufacturers are integrating the latest innovations and tools to serve the industry. The need to better protect printed circuit assemblies from harsh environments using automated selective conformal coating is becoming a must. 5 axis fluid dispensing allows conformal coating to be applied to printed circuit assemblies like never before....

Publisher: ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

Manufacturer of Fluid Dispensing Equipment for Selective Conformal Coating, Potting, Encasulation & Underfill including Inspection, Conveying and Curing. Total Solution Fluid Dispensing & Conformal Cocating Process Lines.

Deer Park, Washington, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Adhesives/Dispensing, Inspection, Soldering, Turnkey

Thermal Curing of Conformal Coatings

Jul 27, 2015 | Wes Noble

When it comes to the application of conformal coating, curing the coating plays a key role in the circuit assembly and selective conformal coating process. Curing conformal coating occurs after the coating spray/dispense process is complete. The coating is considered “cured” when the conformal coating on the circuit assembly is sufficiently tack-free to be handled. Curing can sometimes be accomplished at room temperature but takes a considerable amount of time to dry. Accelerated conformal coating curing decreases this drying period, the cure process reaches either the tack-free or a fully dried state but not quite having fully cured properties. Accelerated curing techniques include one or a combination of heat, moisture, UV light, and chemical reaction curing. This article focuses primarily on thermal or heat curing....

Publisher: ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

Manufacturer of Fluid Dispensing Equipment for Selective Conformal Coating, Potting, Encasulation & Underfill including Inspection, Conveying and Curing. Total Solution Fluid Dispensing & Conformal Cocating Process Lines.

Deer Park, Washington, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Adhesives/Dispensing, Inspection, Soldering, Turnkey

Measuring Conformal Coating Thickness

Jul 21, 2015 | Roger Plough

Achieving an even coat at the right desired thickness is a major challenge when it comes to applying conformal coating to a Printed Circuit Board (PCB). Applying a coating too thin will ultimately render the electronic assembly vulnerable to potential environmental risks therefore defeating the purpose of the coating. Apply the coat too thick, and it could leave the electronic specific components non-functional therefore destroying the electronic assembly entirely. Coating thickness must meet quality specifications. Measurements for coating thickness may be taken while film is dry or wet. Once measurements are recorded, thickness is compared to quality specifications and fluid dispensing automation machinery is calibrated as necessary. There are a handful of methods for measuring conformal coating thickness that are commonly used in the Electronic Manufacturing Services (EMS) and Original Electronic Manufacturer (OEM) industries. A few commonly used methods for checking conformal coating thickness include:...

Publisher: ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

Manufacturer of Fluid Dispensing Equipment for Selective Conformal Coating, Potting, Encasulation & Underfill including Inspection, Conveying and Curing. Total Solution Fluid Dispensing & Conformal Cocating Process Lines.

Deer Park, Washington, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Adhesives/Dispensing, Inspection, Soldering, Turnkey

Testing Printed Circuit Boards for Creep Corrosion in Flowers of Sulfur Chamber

Jul 16, 2015 | Haley Fu; iNEMI, Prabjit Singh, Levi Campbell, Jing Zhang; IBM Corporation, Wallace Ables; Dell Corporation, Dem Lee, Jeffrey Lee; iST-Integrated Service Technology, Jane Li, Solomon Zhang; Lenovo Limited Corporation, Simon Lee; The Dow Chemical Company.

Qualification of electronic hardware from a corrosion resistance standpoint has traditionally relied on stressing the hardware in a variety of environments. Before the development of tests based on mixed flowing gas (MFG), hardware was typically exposed to temperature-humidity cycling. In the pre-1980s era, component feature sizes were relatively large. Corrosion, while it did occur, did not in general degrade reliability. There were rare instances of the data center environments releasing corrosive gases and corroding hardware. One that got a lot of publicity was the corrosion by sulfur-bearing gases given off by data center carpeting. More often, corrosion was due to corrosive flux residues left on as-manufactured printed circuit boards (PCBs) that led to ion migration induced electrical shorting. Ion migration induced failures also occurred inside the PCBs due to poor laminate quality and moisture trapped in the laminate layers....

Publisher: iNEMI (International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative)

iNEMI (International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative)

iNEMI is an industry-led consortium focused on identifying and closing technology gaps, which includes the development and integration of the electronics industry supply infrastructure.

Herndon, Virginia, USA

What is Kelvin Test?

Jul 14, 2015 | Rick Meraw, Todd Kolmodin, Manfred Ludwig, Holger Kern.

The PCB industry is ever changing and adapting to new technologies. OEM specifications and requirements have also advanced due to these technologies. In some cases the OEMs are asking for a low resistance test to be performed on some or all electrical test nets of the PCB or on the holes of the PCB. This requirement is typically not well defined on the fabrication drawing and that leads to misleading conclusions by the fabrication house (...)

This paper will use the data gathered by the company’s operations to outline what a 4-wire Kelvin test is and how it can be used. Several examples will be illustrated of what the 4 wire Kelvin test can and cannot do. A clear definition of what limitations are present during the testing operation will be defined. The paper will assist designers in understanding how the low resistance test can assist them and also identify causes that can identify unwanted concerns/issues....

Publisher: Gardien Services USA

Gardien Services USA

The Gardien Group is the world's largest provider of independent testing services to the PCB manufacturing industry.

Hillsboro, Oregon, USA

Test Services

Reliability Study of Bottom Terminated Components

Jul 14, 2015 | Jennifer Nguyen, Hector Marin, David Geiger, Anwar Mohammed, and Murad Kurwa

Bottom terminated components (BTC) are leadless components where terminations are protectively plated on the underside of the package. They are all slightly different and have different names, such as QFN (quad flat no lead), DFN (dual flat no lead), LGA (land grid array) and MLF (micro lead-frame. BTC assembly has increased rapidly in recent years. This type of package is attractive due to its low cost and good performance like improved signal speeds and enhanced thermal performance.

However, bottom terminated components do not have any leads to absorb the stress and strain on the solder joints. It relies on the correct amount of solder deposited during the assembly process for having a good solder joint quality and reliable reliability. Voiding is typically seen on the BTC solder joint, especially on the thermal pad of the component. Voiding creates a major concern on BTC component’s solder joint reliability. There is no current industry standard on the voiding criteria for bottom terminated component. The impact of voiding on solder joint reliability and the impact of voiding on the heat transfer characteristics at BTC component are not well understood. This paper will present some data to address these concerns....

Publisher: Flex (Flextronics International)

Flex (Flextronics International)

Flextronics is a global full-service supplier of a full spectrum of value-added Electronic Manufacturing Services.

Singapore, Singapore

Design, Service Provider

Predicting Fatigue of Solder Joints Subjected to High Number of Power Cycles

Jul 09, 2015 | Craig Hillman, Nathan Blattau, Matt Lacy

Solder joint reliability of SMT components connected to printed circuit boards is well documented. However, much of the testing and data is related to high-strain energy thermal cycling experiments relevant to product qualification testing (i.e., -55C to 125C). Relatively little information is available on low-strain, high-cycle fatigue behavior of solder joints, even though this is increasingly common in a number of applications due to energy savings sleep mode, high variation in bandwidth usage and computational requirements, and normal operational profiles in a number of power supply applications.

In this paper, 2512 chip resistors were subjected to a high (>50,000) number of short duration (<10 min) power cycles. Environmental conditions and relevant material properties were documented and the information was inputted into a number of published solder joint fatigue models. The requirements of each model, its approach (crack growth or damage accumulation) and its relevance to high cycle fatigue are discussed....

Publisher: DfR Solutions

DfR Solutions

DfR Solutions has world-renowned expertise in applying the science of Reliability Physics to electrical and electronics technologies, and is a leading provider of quality, reliability, and durability (QRD) research and consulting for the electronics industry.

College Park, Maryland, USA

Service Provider

Reliability Screening of Lower Melting Point Pb-Free Alloys Containing Bi

Jul 01, 2015 | Joseph M. Juarez, Michael Robinson, Joel Heebink; Honeywell, Polina Snugovsky, Eva Kosiba, Jeffrey Kennedy, Zohreh Bagheri, Subramaniam Suthakaran, Marianne Romansky; Celestica.

Aerospace and military companies continue to exercise RoHS exemptions and to intensively research the long term attachment reliability of RoHS compliant solders. Their products require higher vibration, drop/shock performance, and combined-environment reliability than the conventional SAC305 alloy provides. The NASA-DoD Lead-Free Electronics Project confirmed that pad cratering is one of the dominant failure modes that occur in various board level reliability tests, especially under dynamic loading.

One possible route to improvement of the mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties of solder joints is the use of Pb-free solders with lower process temperatures. Lower temperatures help reduce the possibility of damaging the boards and components, and also may allow for the use of lower Tg board materials which are less prone to pad cratering defects. There are several Sn-Ag-Bi and Sn-Ag-Cu-Bi alloys which melt about 10°C lower than SAC305. The bismuth in these solder compositions not only reduces the melting temperature, but also improves thermo-mechanical behavior. An additional benefit of using Bi-containing solder alloys is the possibility to reduce the propensity to whisker growth...

Publisher: Honeywell International

Honeywell International

Honeywell is a Fortune 100 company that invents and manufactures technologies to address tough challenges linked to global macrotrends such as safety, security, and energy.

Morristown, New Jersey, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Return on Investment of a Pre-Reflow AOI System

Jun 30, 2015 | CyberOptics Corporation

This paper describes the losses from defects at the placement process in the SMT line. Two case studies of European and Taiwanese SMT manufacturers illustrate the actual losses from their defects. An evaluation method to select a pre-reflow AOI system maximizing the return on investment (ROI) is introduced. In the end, ROIs of three commercial pre-reflow AOI systems are compared to demonstrate the importance of selecting an appropriate AOI system. This paper will increase the probability that anyone installing an AOI system during the pre-reflow process will obtain a successful gain with short payback period....

Publisher: CyberOptics Corporation

CyberOptics Corporation

CYBEROPTICS is a global leader in high-precision 3D sensors that significantly improve yields and productivity in the 3D scanning and metrology, Surface Mount Technology & Semiconductor Markets

Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA

Inspection

Automated Fluid Dispensing for Epoxy

Jun 30, 2015 | Eric Sari

Robotics for automated fluid dispensing have the ability to apply a variety of materials including epoxy, silicone, and acrylic coatings. These materials are extensively used in today’s high-speed fluid dispensers for the electronics industry.

Whether a dispenser is applying epoxy or another material, the central concept for applying any form of material remains the same. Specific points of an item being dispensed onto are programmed into the dispensing system. The automated fluid dispensers software interprets the programmed information and keeps the travel path in memory. A robotic arm moves fluid dispensing nozzles along this travel path and applies epoxy onto the surface of the item with precise accuracy. Machine speed can be adjusted to emit varying amounts of epoxy. The overall application process is auto-regulating and will not be disrupted....

Publisher: ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

Manufacturer of Fluid Dispensing Equipment for Selective Conformal Coating, Potting, Encasulation & Underfill including Inspection, Conveying and Curing. Total Solution Fluid Dispensing & Conformal Cocating Process Lines.

Deer Park, Washington, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Adhesives/Dispensing, Inspection, Soldering, Turnkey

Reduce labor by automating your Selective Conformal Coating process

Jun 22, 2015 | Brian Stumm, Wes Noble

Applying conformal coatings to electronics has come a long way since the days of manually coating circuit boards. The extreme accuracy and highly repetitive process of automated conformal coatings is moving the electronics industry towards a more defect-free era for conformal coating. It enables new forms of electronics to become better protected, making it possible for electronics to withstand harsher environments than ever before. The following article is meant to aid in clarifying the advantages of specialty coating systems over manual applications for selective conformal coating. ...

Publisher: ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

ETS - Energy Technology Systems, Inc.

Manufacturer of Fluid Dispensing Equipment for Selective Conformal Coating, Potting, Encasulation & Underfill including Inspection, Conveying and Curing. Total Solution Fluid Dispensing & Conformal Cocating Process Lines.

Deer Park, Washington, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Adhesives/Dispensing, Inspection, Soldering, Turnkey

PCB Surface Finishes: A General Review

Jun 22, 2015 | Jun Nable, Ph.D., MacDermid Inc. Waterbury, CT

Surface finishing is an integral part of any PCB fabrication. It is generally applied to exposed Cu connectors and conductors on the board. Surface finishing has numerous important functions. It serves as a protective layer for the Cu connectors during storage. The surface finish helps minimize or reduce tarnish of the Cu substrate. Additionally, since it is the layer that comes into contact with other components during assembly, it ensures good solderability between the PCB and the component during assembly. Furthermore after assembly, the finish helps prolong the integrity of the solder joint during use.

A general review of common PCB surface finishes is presented. The advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed and compared. ...

Publisher: MacDermid Inc.

MacDermid Inc.

MacDermid is a global provider of specialty chemicals for the most complex printed circuit board designs. We specialize in the areas of final finishes, through-hole metallization, and circuit formation.

Waterbury, Connecticut, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Antistatic

The Use of an Available Color Sensor for Burn-In of LED Products

Jun 18, 2015 | Tom Melly Ph.D.

In the recent past, the Light Emitting Diode (LED) was hailed as the new energy efficient light source that would never have to be replaced. There were claims of 50,000+ hrs lifetime for the humble LED. That story has changed over the last few years as the number and diversity of the LED based products has increased. This is not to say that the original evidence was incorrect, but the initial enthusiastic estimates from the labs did not match the ultimate test, customers. As a result of poor quality products affecting the overall opinion of LED based products, it is critical that manufacturers can be confident in the quality of their product. In current times we want to have products certified, checked and ensure that we have the best quality.

For the purposes of this paper we will look at one aspect of LED product, and this is the Lumen maintenance and estimated lifetime. The method described here does not seek to replace using high quality rating labs, but hopefully will allow the manufacturer to know with confidence that their prototype product, upon going to certification labs will be of a high enough quality that no expensive re-designs are required....

Publisher: Feasa Enterprises Limited

Feasa Enterprises Limited

Feasa designs and manufactures a range of LED test products.

Limerick, Ireland

Other

Solder Paste Stencil Design for Optimal QFN Yield and Reliability

Jun 11, 2015 | B. Gumpert

The use of bottom terminated components (BTC) has become widespread, specifically the use of Quad Flat No-lead (QFN) packages. The small outline and low height of this package type, improved electrical and thermal performance relative to older packaging technology, and low cost make the QFN/BTC attractive for many applications.

Over the past 15 years, the implementation of the QFN/BTC package has garnered a great amount of attention due to the assembly and inspection process challenges associated with the package. The difference in solder application parameters between the center pad and the perimeter pads complicates stencil design, and must be given special attention to balance the dissimilar requirements...

Publisher: Lockheed Martin Corporation

Lockheed Martin Corporation

Lockheed Martin is a global security and aerospace company that employs about 112,000 people worldwide and is principally engaged in the research, design, development and manufacturing of advanced technology systems.

Bethesda, Maryland, USA

Other

Tin Whisker Risk Mitigation for High-Reliability Systems Integrators and Designers

Jun 04, 2015 | David Pinsky, Elizabeth Lambert

Integrators and designers of high-reliability systems exert little or no control over component-level plating processes that affect the propensity for tin whiskering. Challenges of how to assure long-term reliability, while continuing to use COTS parts plated with pure tin, continue to arise.

An integrated, quantitative, standardized methodology is proposed whereby mitigation levels can be selected that are appropriate for specific applications of pure tin for given end-uses. A system of hardware end-use classification is proposed, together with recommended appropriate risk mitigation approaches. An updated version of the application-specific risk assessment algorithm is presented together with recommended thresholds for acceptability within the context of the hardware classifications....

Publisher: Raytheon

Raytheon

The Raytheon Company is a major American defense contractor and industrial corporation with core manufacturing concentrations in weapons and military and commercial electronics.

Waltham, Massachusetts, USA

Other

Beyond 0402M Placement: Process Considerations for 03015M Microchip Mounting

May 28, 2015 | Brent Fischthal, Sr. Marketing Manager, Products & Solutions Michael Cieslinski, Engineering Manager Panasonic Factory Solutions Company of America.

The printed circuit board assembly industry has long embraced the "Smaller, Lighter, Faster" mantra for electronic devices, especially in our ubiquitous mobile devices. As manufacturers increase smart phone functionality and capability, designers must adopt smaller components to facilitate high-density packaging. Measuring over 40% smaller than today's 0402M (0.4mmx0.2mm) microchip, the new 03015M (0.3mm×0.15mm) microchip epitomizes the bleeding-edge of surface mount component miniaturization.

This presentation will explore board and component trends, and then delve into three critical areas for successful 03015M adoption: placement equipment, assembly materials, and process controls. Beyond machine requirements, the importance of taping specifications, component shape, solder fillet, spacing gap, and stencil design are explored. We will also examine how Adaptive Process Control can increase production yields and reduce defects by placing components to solder position rather than pad. Understanding the process considerations for 03015M component mounting today will help designers and manufacturers transition to successful placement tomorrow....

Publisher: Panasonic Factory Solutions Company of America (PFSA)

Panasonic Factory Solutions Company of America (PFSA)

PFSA develops and supports innovative manufacturing automation equipment, processes and solutions around the core of electronic assembly, microelectronic, software and circuit manufacturing

Rolling Meadows, Illinois, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Pick and Place, OEM

“A New Paradigm in Crimping Press Design” By Rob Boyd, Senior Product Manager, Schleuniger, Inc.

May 27, 2015 | Rob Boyd, Senior Product Manager, Schleuniger. Inc.

It goes without saying that manufacturing companies want the highest possible quality at the lowest possible cost. These days, everyone is trying to do more with less in order to stay relevant in a competitive environment....

Publisher: Schleuniger, Inc.

Schleuniger, Inc.

Schleuniger, Inc. is a leading manufacturer of wire processing equipment. Our innovative automatic and semi-automatic machines are designed to cut, strip, crimp and mark all types of wire and cable.

Manchester, New Hampshire, USA

Other

Reliability of Embedded Planar Capacitors under Temperature and Voltage Stress

May 21, 2015 | Mohammed A. Alam, Michael H. Azarian, Michael Osterman and Michael Pecht

In this work the reliability of an embedded planar capacitor laminate under temperature and voltage stress is investigated. The capacitor laminate consisted of an epoxy-BaTiO3 composite sandwiched between two layers of copper. The test vehicle with the embedded capacitors was subjected to a temperature of 125oC and a voltage bias of 200 V for 1000 hours. Capacitance, dissipation factor, and insulation resistance were monitored in-situ. Failed capacitors exhibited a sharp drop in insulation resistance, indicating avalanche breakdown. The decrease in the capacitance after 1000 hours was no more than 8% for any of the devices monitored. The decrease in the capacitance was attributed to delamination in the embedded capacitor laminate and an increase in the spacing between the copper layers....

Publisher: CALCE Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering

CALCE Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering

The largest electronic products research center focused on electronics reliability, is dedicated to providing a knowledge and resource base to support the development of competitive electronic components, products and systems.

College Park, Maryland, USA

Service Provider, Training Provider

Reliability of Stacked Microvia

May 14, 2015 | Hardeep Heer, Ryan Wong

The Printed Circuit Board industry has seen a steady reduction in pitch from 1.0mm to 0.4mm; a segment of the industry is even using or considering a 0.25mm pitch. This has increased the use of stacked microvias in these designs. The process of stacking microvias has been practiced for several years in handheld devices; however, the devices generally do not operate in harsh conditions. Type 1 and Type 2 microvias have been tested over the years and have been found to be very reliable. We do not have enough test data for 3 and 4 stack microvias when placed on and off buried via. The main objective of this study was to understand the reliability of 3 and 4 stack microvias placed on and off a buried via....

Publisher: Firan Technology Group

Firan Technology Group

FTG is a leading North American manufacturer of high technology printed circuit boards and precision illuminated display systems.

Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Manufacturer of Assembled PCBs, Contract Manufacturer, Service Provider

The Long-term Shaping of the JTAG/Boundary-scan Standards

May 11, 2015 | Peter van den Eijnden, MD JTAG Technologies.

Originating from the last millenium, almost three decades ago, the introduction of surface mount packaging triggered a wave of changes throughout many aspects of electronics production. A small number of talented, innovative test engineers from various big players of the industry started to attend meetings to discuss the impact of that change of technology on their future test concepts for modern assemblies. The Joint Test Action Group was born....

Publisher: JTAG Technologies B. V.

JTAG Technologies B. V.

Market leader and technology innovator of boundary scan software and hardware products and services.

Eindhoven , Netherlands

Test Services, Software Manufacturer

Signal Transmission Loss due to Copper Surface Roughness in High-Frequency Region

Apr 30, 2015 | Elaine Liew, Mitsui Copper Foil Malaysia, Shah Alam Malaysia Taka-aki Okubo, Toshio Sudo, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo Japan Toshihiro Hosoi, Hiroaki Tsuyoshi, Fujio Kuwako, Mitsui Kinzoku Co., Ltd, Japan.

Higher-speed signal transmission is increasingly required on a printed circuit board to handle massive data in electronic systems. So, signal transmission loss of copper wiring on a printed circuit board has been studied. First, total signal loss was divided into dielectric loss and conductor loss quantitatively based on electromagnetic theory. In particular, the scattering loss due to surface roughness of copper foil has been examined in detail. And the usefulness of the copper foil with low surface roughness has been demonstrated....

Publisher: Mitsui Kinzoku Group

Mitsui Kinzoku Group

Manufacturing of functional engineered materials and electronic materials, nonferrous metal smelting, minerals resource development, precious metal recycling, raw material related businesses.

Tokyo, Japan

Other

True Height Measurement in Solder Paste Inspection

Apr 29, 2015 | Dr. Subodh Kulkarni

SPI equipment is routinely used in Printed Circuit Board (PCB) manufacturing to monitor and control one of the most crucial steps affecting the finished quality of circuit board. Solder paste deposition is the key process in board assembly operations using SMT techniques. Our LSM™ system was the industry's first popular method of manually inspecting solder paste; our SE systems revolutionized SMT production by offering an automated method for performing in-process 3D inspection on the assembly line. SPI systems measure the height and volume of the solder pads before the components are applied and the solder melted, and when used properly, can reduce the incidence of solder-related defects to statistically insignificant amounts. Critical to the SPI measurement is the accuracy of the height measurement because that has a direct correlation with solder volume and defects....

Publisher: CyberOptics Corporation

CyberOptics Corporation

CYBEROPTICS is a global leader in high-precision 3D sensors that significantly improve yields and productivity in the 3D scanning and metrology, Surface Mount Technology & Semiconductor Markets

Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA

Inspection

Advanced modelling technique achieves near to zero set up time and minimal tuning

Apr 29, 2015 | Sean Langbridge

Statistical Appearance Modelling technology enables an AOI system to “learn real world variation” based on operator interaction with inspection task results. This provides an accurate statistical description of normal variation in a product. With modelling technology, the user does not have to anticipate potential defects as the system will “flag” anything outside the “normal production range”. And, since the system is programmed with real production variation, it is sensitive to small subtle changes enabling reliable defect detection. Autonomous prediction of process variation enables an AOI system to be set up from a single PCB with production-ready performance. Setup time can be < 15 minutes from data input to first PCB inspection making it an ideal solution for NPI and first-off verification....

Publisher: CyberOptics Corporation

CyberOptics Corporation

CYBEROPTICS is a global leader in high-precision 3D sensors that significantly improve yields and productivity in the 3D scanning and metrology, Surface Mount Technology & Semiconductor Markets

Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA

Inspection

Rework Challenges for Smart Phones and Tablets

Apr 23, 2015 | Paul Wood Advanced Product Applications Manager APR/ BGA Products OK International / Metcal.

Smart phones are complex, costly devices and therefore need to be reworked correctly the first time. In order to meet the ever-growing demand for performance, the complexity of mobile devices has increased immensely, with more than a 70% greater number of packages now found inside of them than just a few years ago. For instance, 1080P HD camera and video capabilities are now available on most high end smart phones or tablet computers, making their production more elaborate and expensive.

The printed circuit boards for these devices are no longer considered disposable goods, and their bill of materials start from $150.00, with higher end smart phones going up to $238.00, and tablets well over $300.00....

Publisher: Metcal

Metcal

Manufacturer of high-performance precision rework systems for the electronics bench. Product lines include: Hand Soldering and Desoldering, Convection Rework products, Fume Extraction and Fluid Dispensing tools.

Cypress, California, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Adhesives/Dispensing, Repair/Rework, Soldering

Stereo Vision Based Automated Solder Ball Height Detection

Apr 16, 2015 | Jinjin Li, Lina J. Karam; School of Electrical, Computer, & Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Bonnie L. Bennett, Jeff S. Pettinato;Intel Corporation.

Solder ball height inspection is essential to the detection of potential connectivity issues in semi-conductor units. Current ball height inspection tools such as laser profiling, fringe projection and confocal microscopy are expensive, require complicated setup and are slow, which makes them difficult to use in a real-time manufacturing setting. Therefore, a reliable, in-line ball height measurement method is needed for inspecting units undergoing assembly. (...)

In this paper, an automatic, stereo vision based, in-line ball height inspection method is presented. The proposed method includes an imaging setup together with a computer vision algorithm for reliable, in-line ball height measurement....

Publisher: Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation

Intel designs and builds the essential technologies that serve as the foundation for the world's computing devices.

Santa Clara, California, USA

Manufacturer of Components

Good Schematics Lead to GOOD LAYOUTS

Apr 08, 2015 | Advanced Assembly

An electronic schematic describes the electrical connectivity of a piece of equipment or an entire system. It is made up of symbols that represent individual components and contains electrical and mechanical information and their related connectivity, along with other important data. Information contained within the schematic is packaged into a printed circuit board (PCB) where the mechanical footprint is placed onto the board and connectivity information is graphically displayed. The more accurate the information contained in the schematic is and the clearer it is presented, the more it contributes to a robust printed circuit board....

Publisher: Advanced Assembly, LLC.

Advanced Assembly, LLC.

Advanced Assembly provides quality PCB assembly services for prototypes and low-quantity orders 87% faster than other shops.

Aurora, Colorado, USA

Manufacturer of Assembled PCBs, Assembly, Contract Manufacturer, Service Provider

Fix The Process Not Just The Product

Apr 03, 2015 | Mary Elmallakh, M. Sc. and Paul Groome Digitaltest Inc. Andy Shelton Pulse Communications, Inc.

Understanding your process and how to minimize defects has always been important. Nowadays, its importance is increasing with the complexity of products and the customers demand for higher quality. Quality Management Solutions (QMS) that integrate real-time test and inspection results with engineering and production data, can allow the optimization of the entire manufacturing process. We will describe the cost and time benefits of a QMS system when integrated with engineering data and manufacturing processes. We will use real examples that can be derived from integrating this data. This paper also discusses the aspects of Quality Management Software that enables electronic manufacturers to efficiently deliver products while achieving higher quality, reduce manufacturing costs and cutting repair time. Key words: Quality Management Software, ICT, Repair workstations, First Pass Yield, Pareto analysis, Flying Probe, QMS. ...

Publisher: Digitaltest Inc.

Digitaltest Inc.

Digitaltest is a Leading Test Equipment Supplier of; High Accuracy Flying Probe Systems. High Speed, Non-Multiplexed, In-Circiuit Test Solutions. Functional Test Solutions. CAD/CAE, SPC and CAD Translation Software.

Concord, California, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Test Services, OEM, Software Manufacturer

Jetting Strategies for mBGAs a question of give and take...

Apr 02, 2015 | Gustaf Mårtensson; BioNano Systems Laboratory, MC2, Petter Svensson, Thomas Kurian; Micronic Mydata AB

The demands on volume delivery and positioning accuracy for solder paste deposits are increasing as the size and complexity of circuits continue to develop in the electronics industry. According to the iNEMI 2013 placement accuracy for these kinds of components will reach 6 sigma placement accuracy in X and Y of 30 um by 2023.

This study attempts to understand the dependencies on piezo actuation pulse profile on jetting deposit quality, especially focused on positioning, satellites and shape. The correlation of deposit diameter and positioning deviation as a function of piezo actuation profile shows that positioning error for deposits increase almost monotonically with decreasing droplet volume irrespective of the piezo-actuation profile. The trends for shape and satellite levels are not as clear and demand further study. ...

Publisher: Mycronic Technologies AB

Mycronic Technologies AB

Mycronic, formerly MYDATA, is the key manufacturer of assembly machine for electronics. Our product portfolio contains Pick&Place machines, Jet-printing machines and component storage towers.

Täby, STOCKHOLM, Sweden

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Assembly, OEM

Guide to Light-Cure Conformal Coating

Apr 02, 2015 | Dymax Corporation

Each year the electronics industry is faced with new product designs that call for smaller printed circuit boards (PCBs) to function in more aggressive and rigorous service environments. As demands change, conformal coating is becoming increasingly adopted to ensure PCB reliability in environments where moisture, condensation, dust, dirt, salts, chemicals, abrasion, thermal shock, mechanical shock, and other factors can all affect circuit performance. This guide reviews the benefits of using light-cure conformal coatings as well as cost justification, typical processing guidelines and best practices, product selection criteria, data, and industry specifications. ...

Publisher: Dymax Corporation

Dymax Corporation

ISO certified global manufacturer and supplier of light-curable adhesives, coatings, oligomers, dispense systems, light-curing equipment, and technical consulting for the industrial, medical, and electronics industries.

Torrington, Connecticut, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Other

How to process C4 (FLIPCHIP)

Mar 29, 2015 | Jason Wu

Application Notes – C4 (FLIPCHIP) Category Description of the category The C4 category is used to describe certain area array devices which have solder bumps (bumps) distributed over the surface of the device. The C4 category is also referred to by the name flipchip. In contrast to the BGA devices, C4 devices do not necessarily have the bumps arranged on a regular grid. The C4 algorithm was originally developed for very fine pitch devices. It has since been extended to find (center) larger components....

Publisher: Shenzhen Southern Machinery Sales and Service Co., Ltd

Shenzhen Southern Machinery Sales and Service Co., Ltd

to provide you with guidance from the AI PCB design(DFM),AI process(NPI) to import equipment installation and auto insertion technology(THT) training, machine trouble shooting/upgrade/overhaul.

Shenzhen, China

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Manufacturer of Assembled PCBs, Design, Equipment Dealer / Broker, Service Provider

The best way to merger 2 SMT lines in one production line

Mar 28, 2015 | Jason Wu

Saving power consumption more then $30K per year, ROI less 6 months. please contact: jasonwu@smthelp.com or w25605@gmail.com if you are interested....

Publisher: Shenzhen Southern Machinery Sales and Service Co., Ltd

Shenzhen Southern Machinery Sales and Service Co., Ltd

to provide you with guidance from the AI PCB design(DFM),AI process(NPI) to import equipment installation and auto insertion technology(THT) training, machine trouble shooting/upgrade/overhaul.

Shenzhen, China

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Manufacturer of Assembled PCBs, Design, Equipment Dealer / Broker, Service Provider

per page.

Pages: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Selective Conformal Coating System - GPD SimpleCoat

PCB Cleaning