Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Papers and articles related to SMT, PCB & EMS industry.


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723 SMT / PCB Technical Articles

What is Procedure for Measuring the Airflow of the Auto Insertion machine - VCD

Mar 27, 2015 | Jason Wu

This procedure documents the method and apparatus for measuring the average air consumption and the peak air flow for Through Hole -- Axial Insertion Machine....

Publisher: Shenzhen Southern Machinery Sales and Service Co., Ltd

Shenzhen Southern Machinery Sales and Service Co., Ltd

to provide you with guidance from the AI PCB design(DFM),AI process(NPI) to import equipment installation and auto insertion technology(THT) training, machine trouble shooting/upgrade/overhaul.

Shenzhen, China

Design, Equipment Dealer / Broker, Manufacturer of Assembled PCBs, Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Service Provider

How to design Through Hole PCB

Mar 27, 2015 | Jason Wu

Equipment Throughput Calculation • Simplistic Throughput Calculation – Deduct a basic rule of thumb percentage from the maximum machine cycle rate. – The accuracy of this method is highly questionable. • Effective Throughput Calculation – Machine de-rate calculated using statistical data based on actual run data and component counts. Also considers PPM, Product Changeover, Board – Load/Unload Time, and Downtime....

Publisher: Shenzhen Southern Machinery Sales and Service Co., Ltd

Shenzhen Southern Machinery Sales and Service Co., Ltd

to provide you with guidance from the AI PCB design(DFM),AI process(NPI) to import equipment installation and auto insertion technology(THT) training, machine trouble shooting/upgrade/overhaul.

Shenzhen, China

Design, Equipment Dealer / Broker, Manufacturer of Assembled PCBs, Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Service Provider

Effectiveness of Conformal Coat to Prevent Corrosion of Nickel-palladium-gold-finished Terminals

Mar 26, 2015 | Michael Osterman

Nickel-palladium-gold-finished terminals are susceptible to creep corrosion. Excessive creep corrosion can result in device failure due to insulation resistance loss between adjacent terminals. The mixed flowing gas test has been demonstrated to produce creep corrosion on parts with nickel-palladium-gold finished terminals. Conformal coats are often used to protect printed wiring assemblies from failure due to moisture and corrosion. However, coating may not be sufficient to protect lead terminations from failure.

In this study, acrylic, silicone, urethane, parylene, and atomic layer deposit (ALD) coatings were examined for their effectiveness at preventing corrosion of nickel-palladium-gold-finished terminals....

Publisher: University of Maryland

University of Maryland

Founded in 1856, this research school offers degrees in engineering, education, business & more.

College Park, Maryland, USA

Training / Education

Exceptional Optoelectronic Properties of Hydrogenated Bilayer Silicene

Mar 19, 2015 | Bing Huang, Hui-Xiong Deng, Hoonkyung Lee, Mina Yoon, Bobby G. Sumpter, Feng Liu, Sean C. Smith, Su-Huai Wei

Silicon is arguably the best electronic material, but it is not a good optoelectronic material. By employing first-principles calculations and the cluster-expansion approach, we discover that hydrogenated bilayer silicene (BS) shows promising potential as a new kind of optoelectronic material. Most significantly, hydrogenation converts the intrinsic BS, a strongly indirect semiconductor, into a direct-gap semiconductor with a widely tunable band gap. At low hydrogen concentrations, four ground states of single- and double sided hydrogenated BS are characterized by dipole-allowed direct (or quasidirect) band gaps in the desirable range from 1 to 1.5 eV, suitable for solar applications. At high hydrogen concentrations, three well-ordered double-sided hydrogenated BS structures exhibit direct (or quasidirect) band gaps in the color range of red, green, and blue, affording white light-emitting diodes. Our findings open opportunities to search for new silicon-based light-absorption and light-emitting materials for earth-abundant, high efficiency, optoelectronic applications.

Originally published by the American Physical Society...

Publisher: Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Oak Ridge National Laboratory is the largest US Department of Energy science and energy laboratory, conducting basic and applied research to deliver transformative solutions to compelling problems in

Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA

Training / Education

Miniaturization with Help of Reduced Component to Component Spacing

Mar 12, 2015 | Jonas Sjoberg, Ranilo Aranda, David Geiger, Anwar Mohammed, Murad Kurwa - Flextronics Advanced Engineering Group

Miniaturization and the integration of a growing number of functions in portable electronic devices require an extremely high packaging density for the active and passive components. There are many ways to increase the packaging density and a few examples would be to stack them with Package on Package (PoP), fine pitch CSP's, 01005 and last but not least reduced component to component spacing for active and passive components (...)

This paper will discuss different layouts, assembly and material selections to reduce component to component spacing down to 100-125um (4-5mil) from today’s mainstream of 150-200um (6-8mil) component to component spacing....

Publisher: Flex (Flextronics International)

Flex (Flextronics International)

Flextronics is a global full-service supplier of a full spectrum of value-added Electronic Manufacturing Services.

Singapore, Singapore

Design, Service Provider

Conformal Coating over No Clean Flux Residues

Mar 04, 2015 | K.Seelig, T.O'Neill

As the proliferation of modern day electronics continues to drive miniaturization and functionality, electronic designers/assemblers face the issue of environmental exposure and uncommon applications never previously contemplated. This reality, coupled with the goal of reducing the environmental and health implications of the production and disposal of these devices, has forced manufacturers to reconsider the materials used in production. Furthermore, the need to increase package density and reduce costs has led to the rapid deployment of leadless packages such as QFN, POP, LGA, and Micro-BGA. In many cases, the manufacturers of these devices will recommend the use of no clean fluxes due to concerns over the ability to consistently remove flux residues from under and around these devices. These concerns, along with the need to implement a tin whisker mitigation strategy and/or increase environmental tolerance, have led to the conundrum of applying conformal coating over no clean residues....

Publisher: AIM Solder

AIM Solder

AIM is a leading global manufacturer of tin-lead and lead-free solder assembly materials for the electronics industry.

Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

Position Accuracy Machines for Selective Soldering Fine Pitch Components

Feb 27, 2015 | Gerjan Diepstraten

The drive towards fine pitch technology also affects the soldering processes. Selective soldering is a reliable soldering process for THT (through hole) connectors and offers a wide process window for designers. THT connectors can be soldered on the top and bottom side of boards, board in board, PCBs to metal shields or housing out of plastic or aluminum are today's state of the art. The materials that are used to make the solder connections require higher temperatures. Due to the introduction of lead-free alloys, the boards need more heat to get the barrels filled with solder. This not only affects the properties of the flux and components, but the operation temperatures of solder machines become higher (...)

First the impact of temperature will be discussed for the separate process steps and for machine tooling. In the experimental part measurements are done to verify the accuracy that can be achieved using today's selective soldering machines. Dedicated tooling is designed to achieve special requirements with respect to component position accuracy....

Publisher: Vitronics Soltec

Vitronics Soltec

Global manufacturer of XPM Reflow Ovens, ZEVA Selective Soldering and Delta Wave Soldering Equipment.

Camdenton, New Hampshire, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Soldering

New Requirements for SIR Measurement

Feb 27, 2015 | Jörg Trodler; Heraeus Materials Technology GmbHo.KG, Mathias Nowottnick, Prof. University of Rostock.

During the last period of newly assembled electrical devices (pcbs), new component types like LGA and QFN were also qualified as well as smaller passive components with reliability requirements based on the automotive and industrial industry. In the narrow gaps under components, residues can accumulate more by the capillary forces. This is not that much a surface resistance than an interface issue. Also that the flux residues under such types of components creates interaction with the solder resists from the pcb, as well as the component body was not completely described in the standard SIR measurement. On the other hand also, electrical influence with higher voltage creates new terms and conditions, in particular the combination of power and logic in such devices. The standard SIR measurement cannot analyze those combinations.

The paper will discuss the requirements for a measurement process, and will give results. The influences of the pcb and component quality will also be discussed. Furthermore it will describe requirements for nc solder paste to increase the chemical/thermical/electrical reliability for whole devices...

Publisher: Heraeus

Heraeus

We design and manufacture SMT assembly materials.

W. Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, USA

Manufacturer of Assembly Material, Soldering

Numerical Study on New Pin Pull Test for Pad Cratering Of PCB

Feb 19, 2015 | Billy Hu, Jesus Tan

Pad cratering is an important failure mode besides crack of solder joint as it’ll pass the regular test but have impact on the long term reliability of the product. A new pin pull test method with solder ball attached and positioning the test board at an angle of 30º is employed to study the strength of pad cratering. This new method clearly reveals the failure mechanism. And a proper way to interpret the finite element analysis (FEA) result is discussed. Impact of pad dimension, width and angle of copper trace on the strength is included. Some findings not included in previous research could help to guide the design for better performance...

Publisher: Flex (Flextronics International)

Flex (Flextronics International)

Flextronics is a global full-service supplier of a full spectrum of value-added Electronic Manufacturing Services.

Singapore, Singapore

Design, Service Provider

Evaluating the Mechanical Reliability of Ball Grid Array (BGA) Flexible Surface-Mount Electronics Packaging under Isothermal Ageing

Feb 12, 2015 | Sabuj Mallik, Ahmed Z El Mehdawi

Electronic systems are known to be affected by the environmental and mechanical conditions, such as humidity, temperature, thermal shocks and vibration. These adverse environmental operating conditions, with time, could degrade the mechanical efficiency of the system and might lead to catastrophic failures.

The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanical integrity of lead-free ball grid array (BGA) solder joints subjected to isothermal ageing at 150°C for up to 1000 hours. Upon ageing at 150°C the Sn-3.5Ag solder alloy initially age-softened for up to 200 hours. This behaviour was linked to the coarsening of grains. When aged beyond 200 hours the shear strength was found to increase up to 400 hours. This age-hardening was correlated with precipitation of hard Ag3Sn particles in Sn matrix. Further ageing resulted in gradual decrease in shear strength. This can be explained as the combined effect of precipitation coarsening and growth of intermetallic layer. The fractured surfaces of the broken solder balls were also investigated under a Scanning Electron Microscope. The shear failures were generally due to ductile fractures in bulk solders irrespective of the ageing time....

Publisher: School of Engineering, University of Greenwich

School of Engineering, University of Greenwich

Engineering has been a cornerstone of teaching at Greenwich since 1890. Our programmes cover the whole spectrum of information-age engineering and are specially designed to meet business and industry.

London, United Kingdom

Training / Education

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