Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Papers and articles related to SMT, PCB & EMS industry.


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615 SMT / PCB Technical Articles

Effect of Gold Content on the Microstructural Evolution of SAC305 Solder Joints Under Isothermal Aging

Aug 29, 2013 | Mike Powers, Jianbiao Pan, Julie Silk, Patrick Hyland

Au over Ni on Cu is a widely used printed circuit board (PCB) surface finish, under bump metallization (UBM), and component lead metallization. It is generally accepted that less than 3 wt.% Au in Sn-Pb solder joints inhibits formation of detrimental intermetallic compounds (IMC). However, the critical limit for Au content in Pb-free solder joints is not well established. Three surface-mount package platforms, one with a matte Sn surface finish and the others with Ni/Au finish, were soldered to Ni/Au-finished PCB using Sn-3.0Ag 0.5Cu (SAC305) solder, in a realistic manufacturing setting. The assembled boards were divided into three groups: one without any thermal treatment, one subjected to isothermal aging at 125°C for 30 days, and the third group aged at 125°C for 56 days... ...

Publisher: Agilent Technologies, Inc.

Agilent Technologies, Inc.

World's premier measurement company, providing the critical tools and technologies that sense, measure, and interpret the physical and biological world.

Loveland, Colorado, United States

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment

Whisker Growth In Tin Alloys On Glass-Epoxy Laminate Studied By Scanning ION Microscopy and Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy

Aug 22, 2013 | A. Czerwinski, A. Skwarek, M. Płuska, J. Ratajczak, K. Witek

Tin-rich solders are widely applied in the electronic industry in the majority of modern printed circuit boards (PCBs). Because the use of lead-tin solders has been banned in the European Union since 2006, the problem of the bridging of adjacent conductors due to tin whisker growth (limited before by the addition of Pb) has been reborn. In this study tin alloys soldered on glass-epoxy laminate (typically used for PCBs) are considered. Scanning ion microscopy with Focused Ion Beam (FIB) system and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) were used to determine correlations between spatial non-uniformities of the glass-epoxy laminate, the distribution of intermetallic compounds and whisker growth....

Publisher: The Institute of Electron Technology (ITE)

The Institute of Electron Technology (ITE)

A major Polish research centre with the primary focus on semiconductor micro- and nanotechnology.

Warsaw, Poland

Association, Non-Profit, Training / Education

A Printed Circuit Board Inspection System With Defect Classification Capability

Aug 15, 2013 | I. Ibrahim, S. Bakar, M. Mokji, J. Mukred, Z. Yusof, Z. Ibrahim, K. Khalil, M. Mohamad

An automated visual PCB inspection is an approach used to counter difficulties occurred in human’s manual inspection that can eliminates subjective aspects and then provides fast, quantitative, and dimensional assessments. In this study, referential approach has been implemented on template and defective PCB images to detect numerous defects on bare PCBs before etching process, since etching usually contributes most destructive defects found on PCBs. The PCB inspection system is then improved by incorporating a geometrical image registration, minimum thresholding technique and median filtering in order to solve alignment and uneven illumination problem. Finally, defect classification operation is employed in order to identify the source for six types of defects namely, missing hole, pin hole, underetch, short-circuit, mousebite, and open-circuit....

Publisher: Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

The FKE was established in late 1974. Since 1st June 1995, the faculty commences operation at the main campus of the University in Skudai, Johor until today.

Johor, Malaysia

Training / Education

Crimp Force Monitoring – The Recipe for Success

Aug 13, 2013 | Gustavo Garcia-Cota, Crimping Product Manager, Schleuniger, Inc.

One of the common issues I’ve noticed when visiting shops that use crimp force monitors (CFMs) is that the CFMs are usually turned off, regardless of the brand, because engineers and operators are not using them properly. Why, with all of their benefits, are CFMs not being used regularly by employees? One of the biggest problems is the lack of understanding of the variables affecting the CFM’s ability to detect variations. Crimp quality detection is similar to baking a cake. There are a lot of ingredients and if one ingredient is missing or of bad quality, you likely are not going to achieve your desired result. This article will go back through the basics of a crimp quality detection system and discuss what ingredients or variables you need to consider before switching off that CFM. ...

Publisher: Schleuniger, Inc.

Schleuniger, Inc.

Schleuniger, Inc. is a leading manufacturer of wire processing equipment. Our innovative automatic and semi-automatic machines are designed to cut, strip, crimp and mark all types of wire and cable.

Manchester, New Hampshire, United States

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment

Automatic PCB Defect Detection Using Image Substraction Method

Aug 08, 2013 | Sonal Kaushik, Javed Ashraf

In this project Machine Vision PCB Inspection System is applied at the first step of manufacturing, i.e., the making of bare PCB. We first compare a PCB standard image with a PCB image, using a simple subtraction algorithm that can highlight the main problem-regions. We have also seen the effect of noise in a PCB image that at what level this method is suitable to detect the faulty image. Our focus is to detect defects on printed circuit boards & to see the effect of noise. Typical defects that can be detected are over etchings (opens), under-etchings (shorts), holes etc......

Publisher: Al-Falah School of Engineering and Technology

Al-Falah School of Engineering and Technology

AFSET, established in 1997, is endeavor of Al-Falah Charitable Trust in keeping with the approach for professional education training and guidance.

New Delhi, India

Training / Education

Return of Investment: AOI vs No-AOI

Aug 07, 2013 | Titus T. Suck, Orbotech SA

Inspection and test equipment is expensive, produces nothing and does not contribute to the company’s bottom line! Such may be the thinking of many. But as today’s electronic assemblies use more and ever smaller components that are impossible to inspect manually, and components that are impossible to test electrically, the main question is “What costs are manufacturers absorbing because they do not have an Automated Optical Inspection system?”...

Publisher:

Glenrothes, Scotland

Comparing Costs and ROI of AOI and AXI

Aug 07, 2013 | Peter Edelstein, Teradyne

PCB architectures have continued their steep trend toward greater complexities and higher component densities. For quality control managers and test technicians, the consequence is significant. Their ability to electrically test these products is compounded with each new generation. Probe access to high density boards loaded with micro BGAs using a conventional in-circuit (bed-of-nails) test system is greatly reduced. The challenges and complexity of creating a comprehensive functional test program have all but assured that functional test will not fill the widening gap. This explains why sales of automated-optical and automated X-ray inspection (AOI and AXI) equipment have dramatically risen......

Publisher: Teradyne

Teradyne

Teradyne manufactures automatic test equipment that delivers competitive advantage to the world's semiconductor, electronics and network systems companies.

North Reading, Massachusetts, United States

Manufacturer of Components, Manufacturer of Bare PCBs, Manufacturer of Assembled PCBs, Assembly, Design

Essentials of SMT - Practical Know How

Aug 07, 2013 | Young Bong Kang

This is a practical technical book written by the author based on 24 years of experience. Almost all SMT books, due partially to a few SMT-related books, put weight on equipment, single process or part technology rather than deal with practical process. The book dealing with practical process know-how is rarely found and this is perhaps the first book in which overall SMT practical processes and standards are presented....

Publisher:

Glenrothes, Scotland

A Review of Corrosion and Environmental Effects on Electronics

Aug 01, 2013 | Rajan Ambat

Electronic industry uses a number of metallic materials in various forms. Also new materials and technology are introduced all the time for increased performance. In recent years, corrosion of electronic systems has been a significant issue. Multiplicity of materials used is one reason limiting the corrosion reliability. However, the reduced spacing between components on a printed circuit board (PCB) due to miniaturization of device is another factor that has made easy for interaction of components in corrosive environments. Presently the knowledge on corrosion issues of electronics is very limited. This paper reviews briefly the materials used in electronic systems, factors influencing corrosion, types of corrosion observed in electronics, and testing methods....

Publisher: Department of Manufacturing and Management Technical University of Denmark

Department of Manufacturing and Management Technical University of Denmark

The Technical University of Denmark has an overall mission of developing and creating value using the natural sciences and the technical sciences to benefit society.

Lyngby, Denmark

Training / Education

Using Automated 3D X-Ray Inspection to Detect BTC Defects

Jul 25, 2013 | Barbara Koczera, An Qi Zhao

Bottom-termination components (BTC), such as QFNs, are becoming more common in PCB assemblies. These components are characterized by hidden solder joints. How are defects on hidden DFN joints detected? Certainly, insufficient solder joints on BTCs cannot be detected by manual visual inspection. Nor can this type of defect be detected by automated optical inspection; the joint is hidden by the component body. Defects such as insufficients are often referred to as "marginal" defects because there is likely enough solder present to make contact between the termination on the bottom-side of the component and the board pad for the component to pass in-circuit and functional test. Should the board be subjected to shock or vibration, however, there is a good chance this solder connection will fracture, leading to an open connection....

Publisher: Flextronics International

Flextronics International

Flextronics is a global full-service supplier of a full spectrum of value-added Electronic Manufacturing Services.

Singapore, Singapore

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