Jan 23, 2017 | Connie Miede
"Water is not a problem of the future, but a key issue of our time for businesses: In the future, urgent water risks will increase in many areas of the world. A growing population, a changing consumer behavior and climate change will have an immediate impact on the availability and quality of water and thus build further pressure on governments, businesses and societies." (Quote from the summary of the 2014 WWF study "The imported risk. Germany's water risk in the age of globalization.")...
Publisher: Kolb Cleaning Technology USA LLC
Jan 19, 2017 | Dr Lincoln Agyemang
Contact email@example.com or call directly on +233 237 234 413. We supply the latest automatic ssd, universal chemicals, activating powders and specialize in cleaning all types of defaced notes, black notes, anti-breeze, stamped, marked or stained currency. We melt and re-activate frozen chemicals and offer 100% cleaning for bills like dollar, euro, pounds and transferring of colours from used note to new white bills. PRODUCTS AVAILABLE: SSD SOLUTION SSD Supreme Solution SSD universal Solution SSD SOLUTION PK 58 SSD Topix solution SSD Castro X Oxide solution For SSD Tourmaline solution SSD VECTROL PASTE solution SSD TEBI-MANETIC solution Chemical Agents VECTROL PASTE SSD SOLUTION SSD UNIVERSAL SOLUTION SSD UNIVERSAL SOLUTION HUMINE POWDER CALTROX OXIDE TIATAMORINE . CONSERVATION, ACTIVATION AND RE-ACTIVATION, PARACIENT POWDER VECTROL PASTE, ZUTA S4, CASTROX OXIDE THE TESTING DOSES AUTOMATED MONEY DEVELOPER MACHINES CONGEAL CHEMICAL MELTING EQUIPMENTS TEMPERATURE CONTROLLERS Our Laboratory is a multi-program International Laboratory Operated By Worldwide Science Associates For the U.S., Belgian,Swiss, Sweden And United Kingdom, Asia , Europe Department of Currency (DOC) and South Africa. we have approximately 200 professional scientists staffs, engineers,technicians,support staffs and over 1000 guest researchers annually. We offer machines for large cleaning and also deliver products to any location desired by buyers SSD SOLUTION CHEMICAL FOR CLEANING BLACK MONEY contact: Dr Lincoln Agyemang WATTS APP: +233 237 234 413 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Thanks For You are all welcome ...
Jan 19, 2017 | Benjamin Jordan
The biggest problem with designing rigid-flex hybrid PCBs is making sure everything will fold in the right way, while maintaining good flex-circuit stability and lifespan. The next big problem to solve is the conveyance of the design to a fabricator who will clearly understand the design intent and therefore produce exactly what the designer/engineer intended.
Rigid-Flex circuit boards require additional cutting and lamination stages, and more exotic materials in manufacturing and therefore the cost of re-spins and failures are very much higher than traditional rigid boards. To reduce the risk and costs associated with rigid-flex design and prototyping, it is desirable to model the flexible parts of the circuit in 3D CAD to ensure correct form and fit. In addition it is necessary to provide absolutely clear documentation for manufacturing to the fabrication and assembly houses....
Jan 05, 2017 | Mitch Holtzer, Steve Brown - Alpha, Marcus Reichenberger - Technische Hochschule Nürnberg
The July 2006 implementation of ROHS exempted automotive applications from converting to lead free technology. Nine years later, all major OEM and Tier 1 automotive manufacturers have converted or are in the process of converting to lead free circuit assembly processing. Starting with SAC (SnAgCu) alloys as a baseline for lead free soldering, in the last years several specific alloys were developed in order to improve resistance to high temperature creep, vibration survival and the ability to withstand thermal cycling and thermal shock.
The paper compares three different solder alloys and two flux chemistries in terms of void formation and mechanical / thermal fatigue properties. Void content and reliability data of the alloys will be presented and discussed in relation to the acceptance criteria of a Tier 1 /OEM automotive supplier. As a result, a ranking list will be presented considering the combined performance of the alloys. In order to analyze the void formation and mechanical behavior of different solder alloys and flux chemistry combinations, statistical methods are used....
Dec 29, 2016 | Yanrong Shi, Ph.D., Kyle Loomis, Jennifer Allen, Bruno Tolla, Ph.D.
The reliabilities of the flux residue of electronic assemblies and semiconductor packages are attracting more and more attention with the adoption of no-clean fluxes by majority of the industry. In recent years, the concern of "partially activated" flux residue and their influence on reliability have been significantly raised due to the miniaturization along with high density design trend, selective soldering process adoption, and the expanded use of pallets in wave soldering process. When flux residue becomes trapped under low stand-off devices, pallets or unsoldered areas (e.g. selective process), it may contain unevaporated solvent, "live" activators and metal complex intermediates with different chemical composition and concentration levels depending on the thermal profiles. These partially-activated residues can directly impact the corrosion, surface insulation and electrochemical migration of the final assembly.
In this study, a few application tests were developed internally to understand this issue. Two traditional liquid flux and two newly developed fluxes were selected to build up the basic models. The preliminary results also provide a scientific approach to design highly reliable products with the goal to minimize the reliability risk for the complex PCB designs and assembly processes....
Dec 22, 2016 | Prabjit Singh, Patrick Ruch, Sarmenio Saliba - IBM Corporation, Christopher Muller - Purafil Inc.
Particulate matter contamination is known to become wet and therefore ionically conductive and corrosive if the humidity in the environment rises above the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) of the particulate matter. In wet condition, particulate matter can electrically bridge closely spaced features on printed circuit boards (PCBs), leading to their electrical failure. (...)
The objective of this paper is to develop and describe a practical, routine means of measuring the DRH of minute quantities of particulate matter (1 mg or less) found on PCBs....
Publisher: IBM Corporation
Dec 21, 2016 | Syed Abdul Rehman Khan
Abstract: In recent years, the environmental problems caused by the traditional implementation of reverse logistics enterprises have become more and more serious. Especially for the enterprises of electronic products, the heavy metal pollution problems caused by the waste of electronic products have made more and more enterprises and researchers begin to seek a green approach of reverse logistics. Based on the idea of “Cradle to Cradle” industry model, by the use of relevant theory of activity-based costing and quality management theory, the conceptual model of decision-making of reverse logistics activities for the electronic products manufacturing enterprises will be established; to decrease the influence on environment when implementing reverse logistics activities....
Dec 15, 2016 | Mulpin
Why embed the components?
Embedded components have advantages over SMD because they are naturally screened from high frequency radio emissions (RFI or EMI). They can also be smaller than current SMD components. Both embedded and Mulpin components have these advantages, but Mulpin components have many more advantages and none of the disadvantages which can be seen below....
Publisher: Mulpin Research Laboratories
Nov 30, 2016 | Katherine Wilkerson, Ian J. Wilding, Michael Carter, Daniel Buckland
Mid-chip solder balling is a defect typically associated with solder paste exhibiting poor hot slump and/or insufficient wetting during the reflow soldering process, resulting in paste flowing under the component or onto the solder resist. Once molten, this solder is compressed and forced to the side of the component, causing mid-chip solder balling.
This paper documents the experimental work performed to further understand the impact on mid-chip solder balling from both the manufacturing process and the flux chemistry....
Publisher: Henkel Electronic Materials
Henkel is a manufacturer of materials for PCB and component assembly. The materials include Loctite adhesives, Multicore soldering products, Hysol encaps and underfills, and Power Devices thermal phase change pads.
Irvine, California, USA
Nov 30, 2016 | Edward Arthur; Raytheon Company, Charles Busa, Wade Goldman P.E., Alisa Grubbs; The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc.
The use of microvias in Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) for military hardware is increasing as technology drives us toward smaller pitches and denser circuitry. Along with the changes in technology, the industry has changed and captive manufacturing lines are few and far between. As PCBs get more complicated, the testing we perform to verify the material was manufactured to our requirements before they are used in an assembly needs to be reviewed to ensure that it is sufficient for the technology and meets industry needs to better screen for long-term reliability. The Interconnect Stress Testing (IST) protocol currently used to identify manufacturing issues in plated through holes, blind, or buried vias are not necessarily sufficient to identify problems with microvias. There is a need to review the current IST protocol to determine if it is adequate for finding bad microvias or if there is a more reliable test that will screen out manufacturing inconsistencies.
The objective of this research is to analyze a large population of PCB IST coupons to determine if there is a more effective IST test to find less reliable microvias in electrically passing PCB product and to screen for manufacturing deficiencies. The proposed IST test procedure will be supported with visual inspection of corresponding microvia cross sections and Printed Wiring Assembly (PWA) acceptance test results. The proposed screening will be shown to only slightly affect PCB yield while showing a large benefit to screening before PCBs are used in an assembly....