Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Electronics Manufacturing Technical Articles

Papers and articles related to SMT, PCB & EMS industry.


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615 SMT / PCB Technical Articles

The Effect of Coating and Potting on the Reliability of QFN Devices.

Aug 28, 2014 | Greg Caswell, Cheryl Tulkoff.

The fastest growing package types in the electronics industry today are Bottom Termination Components (BTCs). While the advantages of BTCs are well documented, they pose significant reliability challenges to users. One of the most common drivers for reliability failures is the inappropriate adoption of new technologies. This is especially true for new component packaging like BTCs. Obtaining relevant information can be difficult since information is often segmented and the focus is on design opportunities not on reliability risks (...)

Commonly used conformal coating and potting processes have resulted in shortened fatigue life under thermal cycling conditions. Why do conformal coating and potting reduce fatigue life? This paper details work undertaken to understand the mechanisms underlying this reduction. Verification and determination of mechanical properties of some common materials are performed and highlighted. Recommendations for material selection and housing design are also given....

Publisher: DfR Solutions

DfR Solutions

DfR Solutions has world-renowned expertise in applying the science of Reliability Physics to electrical and electronics technologies, and is a leading provider of quality, reliability, and durability (QRD) research and consulting for the electronics industry.

College Park, Maryland, United States

Service Provider

Implementing Warpage Management: A Five-Step Process for EMS Providers

Aug 19, 2014 | Ken Chiavone

Warpage management consists of planning, measuring, analyzing, sharing, and reacting to data related to the surface shapes of electronics components as they change throughout the reflow assembly process. Leading semiconductor manufacturers have had warpage management systems in place for ten years or more, mainly because microchip package warpage must be understood and compensated for in order to attain high assembly yields. Similarly, newer device architectures such as package-on-package and system-on-a-chip are sensitive to warpage-related assembly issues, and companies involved in the manufacture and assembly of these devices tend to have the most advanced warpage management programs....

Publisher: Akrometrix

Akrometrix

Leading provider of full-field metrology solutions for substrates and packages in the OEM/CEM/SATS/PCB segments of the microelectronics industry.

Atlanta, Georgia, United States

OEM, Service Provider

Advanced Second Level Assembly Analysis Techniques - Troubleshooting Head-In-Pillow, Opens, and Shorts with Dual Full-Field 3D Surface Warpage Data Sets/

Aug 19, 2014 | Ken Chiavone

SMT assembly planning and failure analysis of surface mount assembly defects often include component warpage evaluation. Coplanarity values of Integrated Circuit packages have traditionally been used to establish pass/fail limits. As surface mount components become smaller, with denser interconnect arrays, and processes such package-on-package assembly become prevalent, advanced methods using dual surface full-field data become critical for effective Assembly Planning, Quality Assurance, and Failure Analysis. A more complete approach than just measuring the coplanarity of the package is needed. Analyzing the gap between two surfaces that are constantly changing during the reflow thermal cycle is required, to effectively address the challenges of modern SMT assembly....

Publisher: Akrometrix

Akrometrix

Leading provider of full-field metrology solutions for substrates and packages in the OEM/CEM/SATS/PCB segments of the microelectronics industry.

Atlanta, Georgia, United States

OEM, Service Provider

Ready to Start Measuring PCB Warpage during Reflow? Why and How to Use the New IPC-9641 Standard

Aug 19, 2014 | Ken Chiavone

Understanding warpage of package attach locations on PCBs under reflow temperature conditions is critical in surface mount technology. A new industry standard, IPC 9641, addresses this topic directly for the first time as an international standard.

This paper begins by summarizing the sections of the IPC 9641 standard, including, measurement equipment selection, test setup and methodology, and accuracy verification. The paper goes further to discuss practical implementation of the IPC 9641 standards. Key advantages and disadvantages between available warpage measurement methods are highlighted. Choosing the correct measurement technique depends on requirements for warpage resolution, data density, measurement volume, and data correlation. From industry experience, best practice recommendations are made on warpage management of PCB land areas, covering how to setup, run, analyze, and report on local area PCB warpage.

The release of IPC 9641 shows that flatness over temperature of the package land area on the PCB is critical to the SMT industry. Furthermore, compatibility of shapes between attaching surfaces in SMT, like a package and PCB, will be critical to product yield and quality in years to come....

Publisher: Akrometrix

Akrometrix

Leading provider of full-field metrology solutions for substrates and packages in the OEM/CEM/SATS/PCB segments of the microelectronics industry.

Atlanta, Georgia, United States

OEM, Service Provider

Advanced Organic Substrate Technologies To Enable Extreme Electronics Miniaturization.

Aug 14, 2014 | Susan Bagen, Dave Alcoe, Kim Blackwell, Frank Egitto.

High reliability applications for high performance computing, military, medical and industrial applications are driving electronics packaging advancements toward increased functionality with decreasing degrees of size, weight and power (SWaP) The substrate technology selected for the electronics package is a key enabling technology towards achieving SWaP. Standard printed circuit boards (PWBs) utilize dielectric materials containing glass cloth, which can limit circuit density and performance, as well as inhibit the ability to achieve reliable assemblies with bare semiconductor die components. Ceramic substrates often used in lieu of PWBs for chip packaging have disadvantages of weight, marginal electrical performance and reliability as compared to organic technologies. Alternative materials including thin, particle-containing organic substrates, liquid crystal polymer (LCP) and microflex enable SWaP, while overcoming the limitations of PWBs and ceramic.

This paper will discuss the use of these alternative organic substrate materials to achieve extreme electronics miniaturization with outstanding electrical performance and high reliability. The effect of substrate type on chip-package interaction and resulting reliability will be discussed. Microflex assemblies to achieve extreme miniaturization and atypical form factors driven by implantable and in vivo medical applications are also shown....

Publisher: i3 Electronics

i3 Electronics

A world leader in high-performance PCB fabrication & assembly, semiconductor packaging, systems integration & test, advanced laboratory services and contract R&D.

Endicott, New York, United States

Manufacturer of Bare PCBs, Manufacturer of Assembled PCBs, Assembly, Component Packaging, Contract Manufacturer

7 Tips For selecting a 8 zone Reflow Oven - HB AUTOMATION

Aug 14, 2014 | HB AUTOMATION

7 tips for making a better decision on the lead-free reflow oven....

1 comments.

Publisher: HB Automation Equipment Co.,Ltd

HB Automation Equipment Co.,Ltd

HB Automation Equipment Co.,Ltd,a leading manufacturer in the design, and development of lead free reflow oven,lead free wave solder and PCB handling machines.

Shenzhen, China

Manufacturer of Assembly Equipment, Pick and Place, Screen Printing, Soldering

Gold Embrittlement In Lead-Free Solder.

Aug 07, 2014 | Craig Hillman, Nathan Blattau, Joelle Arnold, Thomas Johnston, Stephanie Gulbrandsen; DfR Solutions, Julie Silk, Alex Chiu; Agilent Technologies.

Gold embrittlement in SnPb solder is a well-known failure mechanism in electronic assembly. To avoid this issue, prior studies have indicated a maximum gold content of three weight percent. This study attempts to provide similar guidance for Pb-free (SAC305) solder. Standard surface mount devices were assembled with SnPb and SAC305 solder onto printed boards with various thicknesses of gold plating. The gold plating included electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG) and electrolytic gold of 15, 25, 35, and 50 microinches over nickel. These gold thicknesses resulted in weight percentages between 0.4 to 7.0 weight percent....

Publisher: DfR Solutions

DfR Solutions

DfR Solutions has world-renowned expertise in applying the science of Reliability Physics to electrical and electronics technologies, and is a leading provider of quality, reliability, and durability (QRD) research and consulting for the electronics industry.

College Park, Maryland, United States

Service Provider

Electrostatic Theory of Metal Whiskers.

Jul 31, 2014 | V. G. Karpov, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo.

Metal whiskers often grow across leads of electric equipment and electronic package causing current leakage or short circuits and raising significant reliability issues. The nature of metal whiskers remains a mystery after several decades of research. Here, the existence of metal whiskers is attributed to the energy gain due to electrostatic polarization of metal filaments in the electric field. The field is induced by surface imperfections: contaminations, oxide states, grain boundaries, etc. A proposed theory provides closed form expressions and quantitative estimates for the whisker nucleation and growth rates, explains the range of whisker parameters and effects of external biasing, and predicts statistical distribution of their lengths....

Publisher: University of Toledo

University of Toledo

The UT is one of the 14 state universities in Ohio offering over 250 academic programs in a diverse and comprehensive range of studies

Toledo, Ohio, United States

Training / Education

Copper Wire Bond Failure Mechanisms.

Jul 24, 2014 | Randy Schueller, Ph.D.

Wire bonding a die to a package has traditionally been performed using either aluminum or gold wire. Gold wire provides the ability to use a ball and stitch process. This technique provides more control over loop height and bond placement. The drawback has been the increasing cost of the gold wire. Lower cost Al wire has been used for wedge-wedge bonds but these are not as versatile for complex package assembly. The use of copper wire for ball-stitch bonding has been proposed and recently implemented in high volume to solve the cost issues with gold. As one would expect, bonding with copper is not as forgiving as with gold mainly due to oxide growth and hardness differences.

This paper will examine the common failure mechanisms that one might experience when implementing this new technology....

Publisher: DfR Solutions

DfR Solutions

DfR Solutions has world-renowned expertise in applying the science of Reliability Physics to electrical and electronics technologies, and is a leading provider of quality, reliability, and durability (QRD) research and consulting for the electronics industry.

College Park, Maryland, United States

Service Provider

Enhancing Thermal Performance in Embedded Computing for Ruggedized Military and Avionics Applications.

Jul 17, 2014 | Darren Campo, Jens Weyant, Bryan Muzyka

Embedded computing systems used in many military and avionics applications are trending toward higher heat fluxes, and as a result performance is being hindered by thermal limitations. This is intensified by the high ambient conditions experience by today’s modern warfighter. In many applications liquid cooling is replacing air flow through chassis for both thermal and environmental benefits(...)

This paper outlines a series of passive thermal improvements which are easily integrated into legacy, or existing, systems and can provide a 3-4x increase in dissipated power....

Publisher: Advanced Cooling Technologies

Advanced Cooling Technologies

A premier thermal management solutions company. Our highly engineered products include Heat Pipes, Heat Exchangers and Cold Plates.

Lancaster, Pennsylvania, United States

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