Feb 27, 2015 | Gerjan Diepstraten
The drive towards fine pitch technology also affects the soldering processes. Selective soldering is a reliable soldering process for THT (through hole) connectors and offers a wide process window for designers. THT connectors can be soldered on the top and bottom side of boards, board in board, PCBs to metal shields or housing out of plastic or aluminum are today's state of the art. The materials that are used to make the solder connections require higher temperatures. Due to the introduction of lead-free alloys, the boards need more heat to get the barrels filled with solder. This not only affects the properties of the flux and components, but the operation temperatures of solder machines become higher (...)
First the impact of temperature will be discussed for the separate process steps and for machine tooling. In the experimental part measurements are done to verify the accuracy that can be achieved using today's selective soldering machines. Dedicated tooling is designed to achieve special requirements with respect to component position accuracy....
Publisher: Vitronics Soltec
Feb 27, 2015 | Jörg Trodler; Heraeus Materials Technology GmbHo.KG, Mathias Nowottnick, Prof. University of Rostock.
During the last period of newly assembled electrical devices (pcbs), new component types like LGA and QFN were also qualified as well as smaller passive components with reliability requirements based on the automotive and industrial industry. In the narrow gaps under components, residues can accumulate more by the capillary forces. This is not that much a surface resistance than an interface issue. Also that the flux residues under such types of components creates interaction with the solder resists from the pcb, as well as the component body was not completely described in the standard SIR measurement. On the other hand also, electrical influence with higher voltage creates new terms and conditions, in particular the combination of power and logic in such devices. The standard SIR measurement cannot analyze those combinations.
The paper will discuss the requirements for a measurement process, and will give results. The influences of the pcb and component quality will also be discussed. Furthermore it will describe requirements for nc solder paste to increase the chemical/thermical/electrical reliability for whole devices...
Feb 19, 2015 | Billy Hu, Jesus Tan
Pad cratering is an important failure mode besides crack of solder joint as it’ll pass the regular test but have impact on the long term reliability of the product. A new pin pull test method with solder ball attached and positioning the test board at an angle of 30º is employed to study the strength of pad cratering. This new method clearly reveals the failure mechanism. And a proper way to interpret the finite element analysis (FEA) result is discussed. Impact of pad dimension, width and angle of copper trace on the strength is included. Some findings not included in previous research could help to guide the design for better performance...
Publisher: Flextronics International
Feb 12, 2015 | Sabuj Mallik, Ahmed Z El Mehdawi
Electronic systems are known to be affected by the environmental and mechanical conditions, such as humidity, temperature, thermal shocks and vibration. These adverse environmental operating conditions, with time, could degrade the mechanical efficiency of the system and might lead to catastrophic failures.
The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanical integrity of lead-free ball grid array (BGA) solder joints subjected to isothermal ageing at 150°C for up to 1000 hours. Upon ageing at 150°C the Sn-3.5Ag solder alloy initially age-softened for up to 200 hours. This behaviour was linked to the coarsening of grains. When aged beyond 200 hours the shear strength was found to increase up to 400 hours. This age-hardening was correlated with precipitation of hard Ag3Sn particles in Sn matrix. Further ageing resulted in gradual decrease in shear strength. This can be explained as the combined effect of precipitation coarsening and growth of intermetallic layer. The fractured surfaces of the broken solder balls were also investigated under a Scanning Electron Microscope. The shear failures were generally due to ductile fractures in bulk solders irrespective of the ageing time....
Feb 12, 2015 | Nigel Charig
Market forces, particularly legislation against the use of lead in electronics, have driven electronics manufacturers towards lead-free solders for PCB assembly and rework. This approach creates challenges because of the relatively high temperatures needed for lead-free soldering. Additionally, lead-free solder alloys typically do not wet or wick as easily as Sn63Pb37 leaded types. As PCBs often include both BGAs and simpler discrete devices, a lead-free rework capability should include a suitable soldering station and a BGA rework station. This article shows how such equipment can be adapted to overcome the lead-free issues and provide a successful reworking facility....
Publisher: Cupio Yestech Europe
Feb 05, 2015 | Advanced Assembly
Ball grid arrays are the boon and bane of engineers and printed circuit board designers the world over. Their unparalleled pin density and low lead inductance are essential in today's high pin count, high frequency integrated circuits. However, that same pin density and unique interface create a challenge unique unto themselves. These challenges need to be faced head on since the ball grid array (BGA) is prevalent in modern PCBs. While there are entire textbooks that cover the topic of BGAs, their use and fanout techniques, the quick overview provided here offers an engineer a good starting point for improving BGA designs....
Publisher: Advanced Assembly, LLC.
Feb 05, 2015 | R. Basu and R. Hulse
In the past 20 yrs the solvent industry has gone through a great deal of change. In the early 1990s, CFC-113 and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were the workhorses of the industry. The Montreal Protocol to phase-out substances that deplete the Earth's protective Ozone Layer was implemented in the mid 1990s. After phase-out of the CFC solvents, the solvent industry fragmented to a variety of cleaning solutions.
The electronics industry was a large user of CFC solvents and many of these applications changed to aqueous based cleaners (...) But those alternatives are now facing various problems: e.g. aqueous based cleaners use a lot of energy, require long drying times, use equipment that requires frequent maintenance, and require a large footprint; no-clean fluxes leave flux residues; and trichloroethylene and n-propyl bromide have toxicity issues. In response to these serious issues newer solvents and blends are being introduced in the marketplace...
Publisher: Honeywell International
Jan 28, 2015 | Vern Solberg, Ilyas Mohammed
Stacking heterogeneous semiconductor die (memory and logic) within the same package outline can be considered for less complex applications but combining the memory and processor functions in a single package has compromised test efficiency and overall package assembly yield. Separation and packaging the semiconductor functions into sections, on the other hand, has proved to be more efficient and, even though two interposers are required, more economical. The separated logic and memory sections are configured with the same uniform outline for vertical stacking (package-on-package). The most common configuration places the logic section as the base with second tier memory section soldered to a mating contact pattern.
This paper addresses the primary technological challenges for reducing contact pitch and package-on-package interface technology....
Publisher: Invensas Corporation
Jan 26, 2015 | Ensil
In 2005 Raytheon Technical Services Company, now Raytheon Information, Intelligence and Services (Raytheon IIS), approached Ensil regarding the repair of their manufactured Radar Control Terminal (RCT) units. The RCT TRS P/N 13563090-2, a key component in the AN/MPQ-64 Sentinel System, consisted of outdated parts which caused minor to major unit failures. Ensil repaired the RCT's at every turn, correcting any component with the parts still in circulation (mother boards, displays, power supplies) to provide the client with the best available technology. These repairs were completed to military standards and kept the RCT effective, allowing for the Sentinel radar to remain operational. However, the supply of outdated parts was eventually no longer available. Ensil offered the best possible solution, utilizing the skills of their knowledgeable engineering staff, they would reverse engineer a new computer to replace the obsolete RCT while maintaining the same form, fit and function....
Jan 22, 2015 | R. Phillips, J. Bultitude, A. Gurav, K. Park, S. Murillo, P. Flores, M. Laps.
Temperature requirements for ceramic capacitors have increased significantly with recent advances in deep-well drilling technology. Increasing demand for oil and natural gas has driven the technology to deeper and deeper deposits resulting in extreme temperature environments up to 200°C and above. A novel capacitor solution utilizing temperature-stable base-metal electrode capacitors in a molded and leaded package addresses the growing market high temperature demands of (1) capacitance stability, (2) long service life, and (3) mechanical durability. A range of high temperature C0G capacitors capable of meeting this 200°C and above high temperature environment has been developed.
This paper will review the electrical, reliability, and mechanical performance of this new capacitor solution...
Publisher: KEMET Electronics Corporation