Surface Mount Technology companies
International Business Machines Corporation is a multinational technology. IBM manufactures computer hardware and software, offers infrastructure, hosting and consulting services.
The company was founded in 1911 as the Computing Tabulating Recording Company (CTR) through a merger of three companies: the Tabulating Machine Company, the International Time Recording Company, and the Computing Scale Company. CTR adopted the name International Business Machines in 1924, using a name previously designated to CTR's subsidiary in Canada and later South America. Its distinctive culture and product branding has given it the nickname Big Blue.
In 2012, Fortune ranked IBM the #2 largest U.S. firm in terms of number of employees (433,362) the #4 largest in terms of market capitalization, the #9 most profitable, and the #19 largest firm in terms of revenue. Globally, the company was ranked the #31 largest in terms of revenue by Forbes for 2011. Other rankings for 2011/2012 include #1 company for leaders (Fortune), #1 green company worldwide (Newsweek), #2 best global brand (Interbrand), #2 most respected company (Barron's), #5 most admired company (Fortune), and #18 most innovative company (Fast Company).
IBM holds more patents than any other U.S.-based technology company, and has nine research laboratories worldwide. Its employees have garnered five Nobel Prizes, six Turing Awards, nine National Medals of Technology, and five National Medals of Science. Famous inventions by IBM include the automated teller machine (ATM), the floppy disk, the hard disk drive, the magnetic stripe card, the relational database, the Universal Product Code (UPC), the financial swap, SABRE airline reservation system, DRAM, and Watson artificial intelligence.
Dec 22, 2016 | Prabjit Singh, Patrick Ruch, Sarmenio Saliba - IBM Corporation, Christopher Muller - Purafil Inc.
Particulate matter contamination is known to become wet and therefore ionically conductive and corrosive if the humidity in the environment rises above the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) of the particulate matter. In wet condition, particulate matter can electrically bridge closely spaced features on printed circuit boards (PCBs), leading to their electrical failure. (...)
The objective of this paper is to develop and describe a practical, routine means of measuring the DRH of minute quantities of particulate matter (1 mg or less) found on PCBs....
Nov 10, 2016 | Qiujiang Liu; Baidu, Inc., Prabjit Singh; IBM
The demand for compute capability is growing rapidly fueling the ever rising consumption of power by data centers the worldwide. This growth in power consumption presents a challenge to data center total cost of ownership. Free-air cooling is one of the industrial trends in reducing power consumption, the power usage effectiveness (PUE) ratio, and the total cost of ownership (TCO). Free-air cooling is a viable approach in many parts of the world where the air is reasonably clean. In Eastern China, the poor quality of air, high in particle and gaseous contamination, is a major obstacle to free-air cooling. Servers exposed to outside air blowing in to data centers will corrode and fail at high rate. The poor reliability of hardware increase TCO dramatically.
This paper describes a corrosion resistant server design suitable for reliable operation in a free-air cooling data center located in Eastern China where the indoor air quality can be as poor as ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers) severity level G3. An accelerated corrosion test method of verifying hardware reliability in the ASHRAE severity level G3 environment is also described....
Aug 30, 2012 | T.L. Lewis, C.O. Ndiaye, J.R. Wilcox
This paper provides definitions of the different voiding types encountered in Gull Wing solder joint geometries. It further provides corresponding reliability data that support some level of inclusion voiding in these solder joints and identifies the final criteria being applied for certain IBM Server applications. Such acceptance criteria can be applied using various available x-ray inspection techniques on a production or sample basis. The bulk of supporting data to date has been gathered through RoHS server exempt SnPb eutectic soldering operations but it is expected to provide a reasonable baseline for pending Pb-free solder applications....
Nov 01, 2006 | Glenn O. Dearing, Paul J. Hart
Flip Chip Plastic Ball Grid Array (FCPBGA) modules, when subjected to extreme environmental stress testing, may often reveal mechanical and electrical failure mechanisms which may not project to the field application environment. One such test can be the Deep Thermal Cycle (DTC) environmental stress which cycles from -55°C to 125°C. This “hammer” test provides the customer with a level of security for robustness, but does not typically represent conditions which a module is likely to experience during normal handling and operation....