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aluminium wire bonding on Electroless Nickel + Immersion gold

V.RAMANAND KINI

#17253

aluminium wire bonding on Electroless Nickel + Immersion gold | 17 August, 2001

We are in the watch & clock Business. We have a Watch IC chip that has to be wirebonded using Ultrasonic aluminium wedge bonder. The wire dia is 1.25mil. The PCB is made of G10 Glass epoxy copper clad laminate. The copper thickness is 18 microns. The Nickel plating thickness is 7 microns and the gold plating thickness is 0.05 microns. We are finding it difficult to do wire bonding and manual soldering on this plated surface. We would like to improve the plated surface finish. Kindly let us know the following: 1.The plating method. 2.Plating thickness 3.Surface preparation before plating. 4.Specific control points that may improve the aluminium wire bonding and soldering. pls. write to me at Ramanandkini@titan.co.in if u need more information.

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#17265

aluminium wire bonding on Electroless Nickel + Immersion gold | 17 August, 2001

You don�t have enough gold. Your 2uin is too porous and is allowing the nickel to corrode. Prove that this by hand soldering to these pads with a more active flux, like a water soluble solder paste, than you are using.

You must have at least 3uin of immersion gold. Seriously consider >5uin.

Your nickel thickness is fine. Although if you wanted to trade costs, consider giving-up nickel to 150uin thickness, while increasing the gold thickness. Gold over electroless nickel creates brittle joints because of phosphorous in the nickel plating bath. The phosphorous migrates into the over-plating. Electrolytic nickel and gold plating should not be a problem.

If you stay with the electroless nickel, keep the phosphorous at a mid [7 - 9%] level. Just as important, don�t let the immersion gold get too aggressive. The immersion gold works by corroding the nickel. If it is too aggressive it takes away the nickel and leave phosphorous behind. This makes it look like the phosphorous level is too high in the nickel bath.

Gold purity is very important for any type of wire bonding process. For aluminum wedge bonding, gold should have a purity of 99. 99% [no thalium] and the nickel becomes critical. No contaminates and the nickel wants to be plated a soft as possible. This requires good control of Ph and plating chemicals in the nickel-plating bath.

Harman "Wire Bonding In Microelectronics� McGraw-Hill is a good resource for troubleshooting wire bonding. I reviewed it in the SMTnet Newsletter a couple of months ago.

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#17293

aluminium wire bonding on Electroless Nickel + Immersion gold | 21 August, 2001

#17372

aluminium wire bonding on Electroless Nickel + Immersion gold | 27 August, 2001

This otta push Wolfgang over the top ...

Recommended reading G.G. Harman, Wire Bonding in Microelectronics : Materials, Processes, Reliability, and Yield, 2nd edition, McGraw-Hill Electronic Packaging and Interconnection Series, 1997. G.G. Harman, Reliability and Yield Problems of Wire Bonding in Microelectronics, 1991, ISHM, Reston. P. A. Totta, S.Khadpe, N. G. Koopman and M. J. Sheaffer, "Chip-to-Package Interconnections", Microelectronics Packaging Handbook, Part II, and edition, ed. R. R. Tummala, E. J. Rymaszewski and A. G. Klopfenstein, 1997, CH, New York, pp. 129-283. M. Pecht and P. Lall, "Mechanics of Wirebond Interconnects", Thermal Stress and Strain in Microelectronics Packaging, ed. J. H. Lau, 1993, VNR, New York. pp. 729-802. E. N. Larson, "Wire Bonding", Multichip Module Technologies and Alternatives: The Basics, ed D.A. Doane and P. D. Franzon, 1993, VNR, New York, pp. 368-393.

General references J. R. Howell, and J. W. Slemmons, "Evaluation of Thermocompression Bonding Processes," presented to the 9th Welded Electic Packaging Association Symposium, Santa Monica, CA, 1964, Autonetic Report No. T4-240/3110, (13), March 1964, pp. 16, 19, 27, 28, 30. A. Coucoulas, "Ultrasonic Welding of Aluminum Leads to Tantalum Thin Films," Trams. Met. Soc. AIME, 1966, pp. 587-589. M. Kashiwabara, and S. Hattori, "Formation of Al-Au Intermetallic Compounds and Resistance Increase for Ultrasonic Al Wire Bonding," Review of the Electrical Communication Laboratory, 17, 1969, pp. 1001-1013. F. Villela, and M. F. Nowakowaski, "Investigation of Fatigue Problems in 1 mil Diameter Thermocompression and Ultrasonic Bonding of Al-Wire," NASA TM-X-64566, 1970. C. A. Harper (ed.), Handbook of Materials and Processes for Electronics, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970. E. Philofski, "Design Limits When Using Gold-Aluminum Bonds", Proceedings 9th Annual ieee Reliability Physics Symposium, pp.177-185, 1970. E. Philosky, "Intermetallic Formation in Gold-Aluminum Systems," Solid State Electronics, 13, 1970, pp. 1391-1399. S. M. Polcari, and J. J. Bowe, "Evaluation of Non-Destructive Tensile Testing," Report No. DOT-TSC-NASA-71-10, june 1971, pp. 1-46. K. V. Ravi, and R. White, "Reliability Improvements in 1-mil Aluminum Wire Bonds for Semiconductors," Final Report, Motorola SPD, NASA Contract NSA8-26636, December 6, 1971. K. V. Ravi, and E. Philosky, "The Structure and Mechanical Properties of Fine Diameter Alumina-1% Si Wire," Metallurgical Transactions, 2, March 1971, pp. 712-717. F. Villela, and M. F. Nowakomski, "Thermal Excursion Can Cause Bond Problems," 9th Annual Proc. IEEE Reliability Physics Symposium, 1971, pp. 172-177. A. T. English, and J. L. 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